Kamuzu Banda

(Redirected from Hastings Kamuzu Banda)

Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1898- 25 Novembala 1997) anali nduna yaikulu ndipo kenako pulezidenti wa dziko la Malawi kuyambira 1964 mpaka 1994 British protectorate of Nyasaland). Mu 1966, dzikolo lidakhala republic ndipo adakhala purezidenti.

Kamuzu Banda

Ulamuliro wake umadziwika kuti ndi "ulamuliro wopondereza kwambiri." Ataphunzira zambiri zokhudza chikhalidwe cha anthu, zilankhulo, mbiri yakale, ndi udokotala kunja kwa nyanja, Banda adabwerera ku Nyasaland kuti akalankhule zotsutsa utsamunda komanso kulimbikitsa ufulu wodzilamulira kuchokera ku United Kingdom. Anasankhidwa kukhala nduna yaikulu ya Nyasaland, ndipo anatsogolera dzikolo ku ufulu wodzilamulira mu 1964.

Patatha zaka ziwiri, adalengeza kuti dziko la Malawi ndi republic pomwe iye ndi Purezidenti. Adaphatikiza mphamvu kenako adalengeza kuti dziko la Malawi ndi chipani chimodzi pansi pa chipani cha Malawi Congress Party (MCP). Mu 1970, MCP idamupanga kukhala Purezidenti Wamoyo Wachipanichi. Mu 1971 adakhala Purezidenti wa Life of Malawi. Mtsogoleri wotchuka wotsutsa chikominisi ku Africa, adalandira thandizo kuchokera ku Western Bloc pa Cold War. Nthawi zambiri ankathandizira ufulu wa amayi, kupititsa patsogolo zomangamanga za dziko komanso kusunga maphunziro abwino poyerekeza ndi mayiko ena a ku Africa. Komabe, adatsogolera limodzi mwamaulamuliro opondereza kwambiri mu Africa, nthawi yomwe adani ake adazunzidwa ndikuphedwa nthawi zonse. Magulu omenyera ufulu wachibadwidwe amalingalira kuti anthu osachepera 6,000 anaphedwa, kuzunzidwa ndi kutsekeredwa m'ndende popanda kuzengedwa mlandu. Anthu pafupifupi 18,000 anaphedwa mu ulamuliro wake, malinga ndi kuyerekezera kumodzi. Adadzudzulidwa chifukwa chosunga ubale wawo ndi boma la tsankho ku South Africa.

Pofika m'chaka cha 1993, pakati pa zovuta zapakhomo ndi zapadziko lonse, adavomera kupanga referendum yomwe inathetsa dongosolo la chipani chimodzi. Posakhalitsa, msonkhano wapadera unathetsa utsogoleri wake wa moyo wonse ndipo unamulanda mphamvu zake zambiri. A Banda adapikisana nawo paudindo wa pulezidenti pazisankho za demokalase zomwe zidatsata ndipo adagonja. Anamwalira ku South Africa pa 25 November 1997.

Mbiri ya moyo wake

Kamuzu Banda anabadwa Akim Kamnkhwala Mtunthama Banda pafupi ndi Kasungu ku Malawi (panthawiyo British Central Africa) kwa Mphonongo Banda ndi Akupingamnyama Phiri. Tsiku lake lobadwa silikudziwika, chifukwa zinachitika pamene kunalibe zolemba zolembera koma Banda mwiniwake nthawi zambiri ankapereka tsiku lake lobadwa monga 14 May 1906. Pambuyo pake, ataperekedwa ndi umboni wa miyambo ina ya fuko ndi mnzake, Dr Donal Brody, A Banda anati: “Palibe amene akudziwa ola, tsiku, mwezi kapena chaka chimene ndinabadwa, ngakhale panopa ndikuvomereza umboni umene mumandipatsa – March kapena April 1898.”

Adachoka kusukulu kwawo kufupi ndi Mtunthama kupita kwawo kwa agogo ake amake ndipo adakaphunzira ku Chayamba Primary School ku Chikondwa. Mu 1908, anasamukira ku Chilanga mission station ndipo anabatizidwa mu 1910.

Dzina lakuti Kamnkhwala, kutanthauza "mankhwala ang'onoang'ono", adalowetsedwa ndi Kamuzu, kutanthauza "muzu waung'ono". Dzina lakuti Kamuzu anapatsidwa chifukwa chakuti iye anatenga pakati mayi ake atapatsidwa zitsamba za mizu ndi sing'anga kuti achiritse kusabereka. Adatenga dzina lachikhristu la Hastings atabatizidwa mu Church of Scotland ndi Dr George Prentice, waku Scotland, mu 1910, adadzitcha dzina la John Hastings, mmishonale waku Scotland yemwe amagwira ntchito pafupi ndi mudzi wake yemwe amasilira. Mawu akuti "dokotala" anapezedwa ndi maphunziro ake.

Cha m’ma 1915–1916, Banda anachoka kunyumba wapansi ndi Hanock Msokera Phiri, amalume amene anali mphunzitsi pasukulu yaumishonale ya Livingstonia, ku Hartley, Southern Rhodesia (tsopano Chegutu, Zimbabwe). Zikuoneka kuti ankafuna kulembetsa ku Scottish Presbyterian Lovedale Missionary Institute yotchuka ku South Africa koma anamaliza maphunziro ake a Standard 8 popanda kuphunzira kumeneko. Mu 1917, ananyamuka wapansi kupita ku Johannesburg ku South Africa. Anagwira ntchito ku Witwatersrand Deep Mine ku Transvaal Reef kwa zaka zingapo. Pa nthawiyi, anakumana ndi Bishopu William Tecumseh Vernon wa tchalitchi cha African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) amene anadzipereka kuti azimulipirira maphunziro pasukulu ya Methodist ku United States ngati akanatha kudzilipira yekha ndimeyi. Mu 1925, anapita ku New York.

Moyo Wakunja (1925-1958)

Chigawochi sichitchula malo aliwonse. Chonde thandizani kukonza gawoli powonjezera mawu opezeka ku malo odalirika. Zinthu zopanda ntchito zitha kutsutsidwa ndikuchotsedwa. (March 2011) (Phunzirani momwe ndi nthawi yochotsera uthenga wa template iyi)

United States

Banda adaphunzira kusukulu ya sekondale ya Wilberforce Institute, koleji ya African American AME (membala wa AME), yomwe tsopano imadziwika kuti Central State University, ku Wilberforce, Ohio, ndipo adamaliza maphunziro ake mu 1928 ndi diploma. Thandizo lake lazachuma litatha, Banda adapeza ndalama zokambilana zomwe zidakonzedwa ndi mphunzitsi wa ku Ghana Kweyir Aggrey yemwe adakumana naye ku South Africa.

Polankhula pamsonkhano wa kilabu ya Kiwanis adakumana ndi Dr Herald, yemwe mothandizidwa adalembetsa ngati wophunzira wachipatala ku Indiana University, komwe adakhalako **** ndi Akazi W. N. Culmer. Ku Bloomington, analemba nkhani zingapo zokhudza fuko lakwawo la Chewa kwa katswiri wamaphunziro a zachikhalidwe cha anthu Stith Thompson, yemwe anamudziwitsa kwa Edward Sapir, katswiri wa chikhalidwe cha anthu pa yunivesite ya Chicago, kumene, pambuyo pa semesita zinayi, adasamutsirako. M’nthaŵi imene anali kumeneko, anagwirizana ndi katswiri wina wa chinenero cha Afro-America Mark Hanna Watkins, akumapereka chidziŵitso cha chinenero chake cha Chichewa. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti buku la galamala litulutsidwe m'chinenerocho. Ku Chicago, adagona ndi munthu waku Africa-America, Corinna Saunders. Adachita bwino kwambiri m'mbiri, adamaliza maphunziro a B.Phil. digiri mu 1931.

Pa nthawiyi ankasangalala ndi thandizo la ndalama kuchokera kwa Akazi a Smith, omwe mwamuna wake, Douglas Smith, adapeza chuma chochuluka kuchokera ku mankhwala a patent ndi Pepsodent toothpaste komanso monga membala wa bungwe la Eastman Kodak. Iye ndiye, akadali ndi chithandizo chandalama kuchokera kwa awa ndi ena opindula (kuphatikizapo Walter B. Stephenson wa Delta Electric Company), anaphunzira zachipatala pa Meharry Medical College ku Tennessee, kumene adalandira digiri ya M.D. mu 1937. Banda anakhala mtsogoleri Wachiwiri wachimalawi kulandira digiri ya udokotala, kutsatira Daniel Sharpe Malekebu.

United Kingdom

Kuti agwiritse ntchito mankhwala m'madera a Ufumu wa Britain, komabe, Banda amayenera kupeza digiri yachiwiri yachipatala; adapita ku yunivesite ya Edinburgh ndipo pambuyo pake adapatsidwa dipuloma yolumikizana katatu yaku Scottish (yokhala ndi mayina a LRCP(Edin), LRCS(Edin) ndi LRCPSG) mu 1941. Maphunziro ake adathandizidwa ndi ndalama zokwana £300 pachaka kuchokera boma la Nyasaland (kuti atsogolere kubwerera kwake kumeneko ngati dotolo) komanso kuchokera ku Church of Scotland; palibe aliyense wa opindula amenewa amene ankadziwa za mnzake. (Pali nkhani zotsutsana za izi. Ayenera kuti adathandizidwabe ndi Mayi Smith.) Pamene adalembetsa maphunziro a matenda a m'madera otentha ku Liverpool, boma la Nyasaland linathetsa malipiro ake. Anakakamizika kuchoka ku Liverpool pamene anakana pazifukwa za chikumbumtima kuti alembetsedwe kukhala dokotala wankhondo. Anakhalanso mkulu wa parishi ya Church of Scotland.

Pakati pa 1941 ndi 1945, adagwira ntchito ngati dokotala ku North Shields, pafupi ndi Newcastle upon Tyne. Anali wobwereka kwa Mayi Amy Walton panthawiyi ku Alma Place ku North Shields ndipo amamutumizira khadi la Khrisimasi chaka chilichonse mpaka imfa yake chakumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1960. Mu 1944, anakumana ndi Merene French, mpongozi wa mmodzi wa odwala ake, ndipo anayamba naye ubwenzi.

Nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse itatha, adakhazikitsa mchitidwe ku London kozungulira Kilburn ndipo adayamba ndale polowa nawo bungwe la Labor Party ndi Fabian Colonial Bureau, lomwe linakhazikitsidwa mu 1940.

Banda anasamukira ku London mu 1945, kukagula chizolowezi ku North London ku Harlesden. Poyamba, anakhala kunyumba ya Mayi French, ndipo Bambo French anagwirizana nawo mu October 1945. Pambuyo pake, anagula nyumba yake ku Brondesbury Park. Akazi a French anasamuka monga wowasamalira m'nyumba, pamodzi ndi mwamuna wake. fkutchulidwa] Malinga ndi nkhani zina, anagona mu hotelo, The Conway Court, ku Paddington yoyendetsedwa ndi Mayi Janet Evans. Akuti adazemba kubwerera ku Nyasaland kuopa kuti ndalama zomwe adapezazi zitha kudyetsedwa ndi achibale ake kwawo.

M’chaka cha 1945, molamulidwa ndi mfumu Mwase wa ku Kasungu, yemwe adakumana naye ku England m’chaka cha 1939, komanso amalawi ena okonda ndale, adaimira chipani cha Nyasaland African Congress ku Fifth Pan-African Congress ku Manchester. Kuyambira nthawiyi, adachita chidwi kwambiri ndi dziko lakwawo, ndikulangiza a Congress ndikuwathandizira ndalama. Mothandizidwa ndi a Britons achifundo, adalimbikitsanso ku London m'malo mwa Congress.

Federation of Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland ndikusamukira ku Ghana

A Banda adatsutsa kwambiri zoyesayesa za Sir Roy Welensky, yemwe ndi wandale ku Northern Rhodesia, kuti akhazikitse mgwirizano pakati pa Southern Rhodesia ndi Northern Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland, zomwe akuwopa kuti zingapangitse kuti akuda a Nyasaland apitirize kulandidwa ufulu. Bungwe la (monga momwe amatchulira) "opusa" adakhazikitsidwa mu 1953.

Mphekesera zinamveka mosangalala kuti abwerera ku Nyasaland mu 1951, koma adasamukira ku Gold Coast ku West Africa. Anapita kumeneko mwina chifukwa cha chipongwe chokhudza wolandira alendo ku Harlesden, Merene French (Mrs French); ngakhale pali malipoti oti anatenga pakati pa mwana wake, izi sizinatsimikizidwe. Banda adatchulidwa kuti adayankhapo nawo pa chisudzulo cha Mr French ndipo akumuimba mlandu wochita chigololo ndi Mayi French. Anatsatira Banda ku West Africa, koma iye sankafunanso kuchita naye chilichonse. (Anamwalira mu 1976.)

Kuitanidwa kuti abwerere kunyumba

Several influential Congress leaders, including Henry Chipembere, Kanyama Chiume, Dunduzu Chisiza and T.D.T. Banda (no relation) adamuchonderera kuti abwerere ku Nyasaland kuti akatsogolere ntchito yawo. Nthumwi zomwe zidatumizidwa ku London zidakumana ndi Banda ku Port of Liverpool komwe amakonzekera zobwerera ku Ghana.

Kubwererani ku Nyasaland

Posakhalitsa anayamba kuyendayenda m'dzikolo, kuyankhula zonyoza Central African Federation (yomwe imadziwikanso kuti Federation of Rhodesia ndi Nyasaland), ndikulimbikitsa nzika zake kukhala mamembala a chipanichi. Zikuoneka kuti anali wotopa kwambiri m’Chichewa chawo moti ankafunika womasulira, ntchito imene John Msonthi ankaigwira kenako ndi John Tembo, yemwe anakhala naye pafupi kwa nthawi yonse ya ntchito yake). Iye ankalandiridwa mwansangala kulikonse kumene ankalankhula, ndipo kukana ulamuliro wa ufumu wa Amalawi kunakula kwambiri. Pofika mwezi wa February 1959, zinthu zinali zitafika poipa kwambiri moti asilikali a Rhodesian anatumizidwa kuti athandize kusunga bata, ndipo kunalengezedwa kuti pachitika ngozi. Pa 3 March, Banda, pamodzi ndi mazana a anthu a ku Africa, adamangidwa panthawi ya "Operation Sunrise". Anatsekeredwa m’ndende ku Gwelo (komwe tsopano ndi Gweru) ku Southern Rhodesia (tsopano Zimbabwe), ndipo utsogoleri wa Malawi Congress Party (Nyasaland African Congress pansi pa dzina latsopano) unatengedwa kwa kanthawi ndi Orton Chirwa, yemwe anatuluka m’ndende ku. Ogasiti 1959.

Kumasulidwa kundende ndi njira yopita ku ufulu wodzilamulira

Zomwe zikuchitika ku Britain, panthawiyi, zidakhala zikuyenda kwa nthawi yayitali chifukwa cha kukakamizidwa ndi madera ake. Banda adatuluka kundende mu Epulo 1960 ndipo adaitanidwa ku London kukakambirana zobweretsa ufulu wodzilamulira. Chisankho chinachitika mu Ogasiti 1961. Pamene a Banda adasankhidwa kukhala nduna ya za nthaka, zachilengedwe ndi maboma ang'onoang'ono, adakhala nduna yaikulu ya Nyasaland - udindo womwe adapatsidwa pa 1 February 1963. Iye ndi anzake a MCP mwamsanga. anakulitsa maphunziro a sekondale, anakonzanso makhoti otchedwa Native Courts, anathetsa mitengo ina yaulimi yautsamunda ndi kukonza zina. Mu December 1962, R. A. Butler, Mlembi wa Boma la Britain wa African Affairs, anavomera kuthetsa Federation.

Ndi Banda yemwe adasankha dzina loti "Malawi" kutchula Nyasaland wakale; anali ataona pa mapu akale a Chifalansa ngati dzina la "Nyanja ya Maravi" m'dziko la Bororo, ndipo anakonda kumveka ndi maonekedwe a mawu akuti "Malawi". Pa 6 July 1964, patadutsa zaka 6 ndendende Banda atabwerera m’dziko muno, Nyasaland inalandira ufulu wodzilamulira ndipo inadzitcha kuti Malawi.

Mtsogoleri wa Malawi

1964 vuto la cabinet

Patangotha ​​mwezi umodzi dziko la Malawi litalandira ufulu wodzilamulira, lidakumana ndi vuto la Cabinet Crisis mu 1964. A Banda anali atadzudzulidwa kale chifukwa chongofuna kudzilamulira okha. Nduna zingapo za a Banda zidamupatsa maganizo ofuna kuchepetsa mphamvu zake. Adayankha choncho a Banda pochotsa nduna zinayi. Atumiki ena anasiya ntchito chifukwa cha chifundo. Otsutsawo anathawa m’dzikolo.

Malamulo atsopano ndi kuphatikiza mphamvu

Dziko la Malawi lidalandira malamulo atsopano pa 6 July 1966, pomwe dzikolo lidatchedwa republic. Banda adasankhidwa kukhala mtsogoleri woyamba wa dziko lino kwa zaka zisanu; anali yekha phungu. Chikalata chatsopanochi chinapatsa a Banda mphamvu zambiri za utsogoleri ndi malamulo, komanso kuti MCP ikhale chipani chokhacho chazamalamulo. Komabe, dzikolo linali kale lachipani chimodzi kuyambira pomwe lidalandira ufulu wodzilamulira. Malamulo atsopanowa adasandutsa utsogoleri wa a Banda kukhala ulamuliro wankhanza.

Mu 1970, chipani cha MCP chinalengeza kuti a Banda ndi mtsogoleri wadziko lonse. Mu 1971, nyumba yamalamulo idalengeza kuti Banda ndi Purezidenti wa Moyo wa Malawi. Mutu wake unali wakuti " His Excellency the Life President of the Republic of Malaŵi, Ngwazi Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda." Dzina lakuti Ngwazi limatanthauza “mkulu wa mafumu” (litali kwenikweni, “mkango waukulu,” kapena, ena anganene, “wogonjetsa”) m’Chicheŵa.

Nthawi zambiri a Banda ankamuona ngati mtsogoleri wabwino, ngakhale wooneka bwino, yemwe analimbikitsidwa ndi ma suti ake a chingerezi atatu, mipango yofananira, ndodo ndi whisk. Mu June 1967, adalandira udokotala wolemekezeka ndi yunivesite ya Massachusetts ndi encomium "... dokotala wa ana ku dziko lake lakhanda". Banda mwiniyo adafotokoza mosapita m'mbali maganizo ake olamulira dzikolo ponena kuti, "Chilichonse ndi ntchito yanga. Chilichonse. Chilichonse chimene ndinganene ndi lamulo ... kwenikweni malamulo." mantha.

Ngakhale kuti malamulo oyendetsera dziko lino ankapereka ufulu wachibadwidwe ndi ufulu, iwo sankatanthauza chilichonse, ndipo dziko la Malawi linali la apolisi. Imelo idatsegulidwa ndipo nthawi zambiri imasinthidwa. Matelefoni amangoimbidwa, ndipo mafoni ankadziwika kuti sangadulidwe ngati wina wanena mawu odzudzula okhudza boma.

A Banda adalimbikitsa anthuwo kuti anene anthu omwe amamudzudzula ngakhale atakhala achibale. Otsutsa ankamangidwa, kuthamangitsidwa (monga Kanyama Chiume) kapena kufa mokayikira (monga Dick Matenje kapena Dr Attati Mpakati).

Chochitika cha Mwanza Four

Mu 1983, nduna zitatu - Dick Matenje, Twaibu Sangala, Aaron Gadama - ndi phungu wa Nyumba ya Malamulo David Chiwanga adamwalira pa ngozi yomwe idadziwika kuti "ngozi yapamsewu". A Banda adayitana "mkangano wamkati wokhudza demokalase ya zipani zambiri" m'Malawi. Pamsonkhano wa nduna zitatu, nduna zitatuzi zidati zikugwirizana ndi ganizo la zipani zambiri, zomwe zidatsutsa zomwe a Banda adafuna kuti akhale mtsogoleri wadziko lonse. A Banda atakwiya, "adathetsa nduna" nthawi yomweyo ndipo adalengeza kuti nyumba ya malamulo ikumana nthawi yomweyo. Kumapeto kwa msonkhano wa nyumba yamalamulo umenewo, aliyense m’zipindazo analandidwa udindo wawo wandale. Anthu atatuwa adawatola kunyumba ya Nyumba ya Malamulo ku Zomba kuti akawafunse mafunso. Chiwanga chidachitika pomwe adazunzidwa kuchipinda chakumbuyo ndipo adayeneranso kutonthola. Anthu anayiwo adawamanga mugalimoto ya Peugeot 604 ya Matenje ndi kupita ku Thambani m'boma la Mwanza kumadzulo kwa mzinda wa Blantyre komwe ngoziyi idachitikira: magwero akuti galimoto yawo "idagubuduka pomwe anthuwo amayesa kuthawira ku dziko loyandikana nalo la Mozambique". zofunika] Pambuyo pake, kunapezeka kuti anaphedwa mwa kukhomeredwa zikhomo za hema m’mitu yawo. A Banda adalamula kuti malirowo aikidwe usiku ndipo adalamula kuti mabokosiwo asatsegulidwe kuti awonedwe komaliza.

Ndondomeko zakunja

Anti-communism

Pautsogoleri wa a Banda, dziko la Malawi poyamba linakana kukhazikitsa ubale waukazembe ndi maboma aliwonse achikomyunizimu ku Eastern Europe kapena Asia (komabe ubale unakhazikitsidwa ndi North Korea mu 1982 komanso ndi Romania ndi Albania mu 1985).

A Banda anali m'modzi mwa atsogoleri ochepa a mu Africa omwe adathandizira dziko la United States pankhondo ya Vietnam, udindo womwe adautengera mwa zina chifukwa chodana ndi chikominisi.

Ubale ndi mayiko aku Africa

Ngakhale kuti mayiko ambiri akummwera kwa Africa adachita malonda ndi nthawi ya tsankho ku South Africa chifukwa chofuna chuma, Malawi ndi dziko lokhalo mu Africa lomwe lidazindikira dziko la South Africa ndikukhazikitsa ubale waukazembe ndi dzikolo, kuphatikiza mgwirizano wamalonda womwe udakwiyitsa atsogoleri ena a mu Africa. Adawopseza kuti achotsa dziko la Malawi mubungwe la Organisation of African Unity mpaka a Banda atachoka pampando. Banda anayankha podzudzula maiko ena a mu Afirika kuti ndi achinyengo, ndipo polankhula pagulu ku nyumba yake yamalamulo, Banda anati: “Palibe choopsa, Cassius, pakuopseza kwanu” (Julius Caesar). Anawauza kuti akhazikike mtima pa kutsimikizira boma la South Africa kuti tsankho silinali lofunika. Kuwonjezera apo, iye anawonjezera kuti “[Atsogoleri a mu Afirika] amachita zosagwirizana, osati mgwirizano, kwinaku akudzionetsa ngati omasula Afirika. Pamene akuimba m’gulu la oimba la Pan Africanism, Aroma awo omwe akuyaka.”

Zogwirizana ndi South Africa

Onaninso: Maubale a Malawi-South Africa

Banda anali wolamulira yekha wa mu Africa amene adakhazikitsa ubale waukazembe ndi dziko la South Africa pa nthawi ya tsankho komanso ulamuliro wa Apwitikizi ku Mozambique. Pambuyo pavuto la nduna mu 1964, Banda adayamba kudzipatula mu ndale za ku Africa. [ Kumbali ina, kudana kwake ndi Roy Welensky ndi zomwe adazitcha "chitaganya chopusa" chinali chiwombankhanga chomwe adagwiritsa ntchito kukana dziwe lamagetsi la Bangula Hydro-electric - lomwe likuyembekezeka kukhala lalikulu kuposa Damu la Gezira ku Khartoum - lomwe Welensky's Federation idafunafuna ndikupeza ndalama kuchokera ku boma la Britain. A Banda anapitiliza kudzudzula zonse kuphatikizapo nkhono (zomwe zingayambitse matenda a Bilharzia) kuti zithetse ntchitoyi. Kenako, a British adakana kuti a Banda amupatse ndalama ndi thandizo la ndalama zomwe amafunikira kuti akwaniritse cholinga chake chofuna kukhala ndi likulu latsopano ku Lilongwe, mdera lakwawo. Chifukwa chake adatembenukira ku South Africa - komwe kumasewera masewera andale mderali - zomwe zidamupatsa ngongole yofewa ya 300 miliyoni rand. Zomwe zidalipo zinali zoti a Banda amayenera kutsata mfundo za tsankho la dziko la South Africa pakati pa atsogoleri a mu Africa. Chifukwa chake, nthawi ina adayendera dziko la South Africa komwe adakumana ndi anzawo aku South Africa ku Stellenbosch. Banda adanenapo kuti, “Kulumikizana kotere [pakati pa dziko la South Africa ndi Malawi] kumene kungaululire kwa anthu anu kuti pali anthu otukuka osati azungu...” ubale ndi South Africa.

Nthawi ya tsankho itatha ndipo chipani cha ANC chidayamba kulamulira ndale za ku South Africa mzaka za m'ma 1990, ubale pakati pa Malawi ndi South Africa udawopseza kuti utha, koma gulu la Malawi lomwe limatsogozedwa ndi nthumwi za Malawi ku South Africa kuphatikiza SP Kachipande, ndi nthumwi za Malawi. m’Malawi, kuphatikizapo kazembe wakale wa dziko lino, a Phiri, anakonza msonkhano pakati pa maboma awiriwa womwe unachititsa kuti Nelson Mandela apite ku Malawi monga pulezidenti wa ANC.

Adakumana ndi John Tembo ndi apulezidenti. Ubale pakati pa maboma awiriwa udapitilirabe kukhala wabwino zitadziwika kuti a Banda ankathandiza chipani cha ANC mobisa mu nthawi ya tsankho. Boma la Malawi ndi dziko la South Africa lidapitilizabe ubale waukazembe.

Kubwera ku Mozambique

Kutengapo gawo kwa Banda ku Mozambique kudayamba nthawi ya atsamunda a Chipwitikizi ku Mozambique pomwe a Banda adathandizira boma la atsamunda la Portugal ndi zigawenga zomwe zidathandizira. Dziko la Malawi litalandira ufulu wodzilamulira, a Banda adalimbitsa ubale wake ndi boma la atsamunda la Portugal posankha Jorge Jardim kukhala kazembe wa dziko la Malawi ku Mozambique mu September 1964. Anagwiranso ntchito yolimbana ndi gulu lankhondo la Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO) ku Malawi popitiliza kuthandiza atsamunda achi Portugal. Bungwe la Organisation of African Unity lidasankha dziko la Malawi kukhala limodzi mwa mayiko omwe ali Frontline kuti athandizire mabungwe odziyimira pawokha ku Mozambique.

Banda akumana ndi Purezidenti wa Zambia Kenneth Kaunda. Zambia idapereka chithandizo chothandizira magulu a anthu akuda ku Rhodesia ya Ian Smith, South West Africa, Angola, ndi Mozambique.

Pofika m'ma 1980, a Banda adathandizira boma komanso zigawenga pankhondo yapachiweniweni ku Mozambique. Anapatsa bwino gulu lankhondo la Malawi ndi a Malawi Young Pioneers ku Mozambique kuyambira 1987 mpaka 1992. Anali ndi gulu lankhondo la Malawi kuti lithandizire boma la Mozambique lomwe linkalamulidwa ndi FRELIMO dzikolo litalandira ufulu wodzilamulira mu 1975, pofuna kuteteza zofuna za Malawi ku Mozambique. Izi zidachitika mwa pangano mu 1984 ndi Samora Machel. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, a Banda adagwiritsa ntchito MYP ngati otengera mabuku komanso othandizira a Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO), omwe anali akulimbana ndi boma la Machel kuyambira kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1970. Dziko la Malawi lidagwiritsidwa ntchito popereka thandizo lakunja kuchokera ku boma la tsankho la South Africa. Machel adapereka chikalata ku Frontline States ndi umboni wosonyeza kuti a Banda akuchirikizabe zigawengazo ngakhale adagwirizana mu 1984 kuti asiye. Pofika September 1986, Machel, Robert Mugabe, ndi Kenneth Kaunda anapita ku Banda kukamunyengerera kuti asiye kuchirikiza RENAMO. Wolowa m'malo mwa Machel, Joaquim Chissano, adapitilizabe kudandaula kuti dziko la Malawi silikufuna kusiya kuthandiza RENAMO. Koma a Banda amayesa kusunga zofuna za Amalawi pa doko la Nacala ku Mozambique ndipo sadafune kudalira madoko a Tanzania ndi South Africa kuti atuluke ndi kutumiza kunja chifukwa cha ndalamazo. Mozambique ndi Malawi adagwirizana kuti akhazikitse asilikali a mayiko awiriwa ku Nayuchi pafupi ndi doko.Zochitika za kuphedwa kwa asitikali aku Malawi pazaka zinayi zidakwiyitsa Asilikali chifukwa mamembala a MYP adachita nawo zigawengazo, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti awiriwa azitsutsana.

Kufa kwa ndale

Kutha kwa Cold War kunamveka ngati imfa ya Banda wamaliseche. Atsogoleri aku Western ndi opereka thandizo padziko lonse lapansi sanagwiritsenso ntchito maulamuliro aulamuliro odana ndi Chikomyunizimu m'dziko lachitatu, zonse zomwe zidakakamizidwa kuti zikhazikitse demokalase. Madonors adauza a Banda kuti akuyenera kuchitapo kanthu pofuna kuti boma lake lichite zinthu poyera komanso kuti liziyankha kwa anthu ndi mayiko ena pofuna thandizo lina. Boma la Britain linasiyanso thandizo lawo lazachuma. Mu March 1992, mabishopu achikatolika ku Malawi analemba kalata ya abusa a Lenten yomwe inadzudzula Banda ndi boma lake. Ophunzira akusukulu ya ukachenjede ya Malawi pasukulu ya ukachenjede ya Chancellor College ndi Polytechnic adachita nawo ziwonetsero komanso zionetsero zolimbikitsa maepiskopiwa zomwe zidakakamiza akuluakulu a boma kuti atseke masukuluwo.

Mu Epulo 1992, Chakufwa Chihana, wogwirizira ntchito, adapempha poyera kuti pakhale chisankho chokhudza tsogolo la ndale la Malawi. Anamangidwa asanamalize zokamba zake pabwalo la ndege la Lilongwe. Pofika mchaka cha 1992, chikakamizo chomwe chikukulirakuliraku kuchokera mkati ndi kunja kwa mayiko chinakakamiza a Banda kuti avomere kupanga referendum ngati akuyenera kukhalabe ndi chipani chimodzi. Referendumu inachitika pa 14 June 1993, zomwe zinapangitsa kuti mavoti achulukane (64 peresenti) mokomera demokalase ya zipani zambiri. Zitatha izi, zipani za ndale kupatula MCP zidakhazikitsidwa ndipo kukonzekera zisankho zinayamba. A Banda adagwira ntchito ndi zipani zomwe zidangokhazikitsidwa kumene komanso mpingo, ndipo sanachite ziwonetsero pomwe msonkhano wapadera unamuchotsera udindo wake wa President for Life, komanso mphamvu zake zambiri. Kusintha kuchokera ku umodzi mwa maulamuliro opondereza kwambiri mu Africa kupita ku demokalase kunali kwamtendere.

Mwambo wotsegulira manda a Banda Mausoleum, 14 May 2006 - Lilongwe, Malawi

Operation Bwezani inali gulu la asilikali a Malawi pofuna kulanda zida za a Malawi Young Pioneers pa nthawi ya kusintha kwa ndale mu December 1993. Bwezani amatanthauza "kubwezera."

Pambuyo pa mafunso okhuza thanzi lake, a Banda adapikisana nawo pa chisankho cha pulezidenti woyamba wa demokalase m'Malawi mu 1994. Anagonjetsedwa kotheratu ndi a Bakili Muluzi, wa ku Yao wochokera kuchigawo chakumwera kwa dzikolo. A Banda sanachedwe kuvomera kugonja. ″Ndikufuna kumuyamikira ndi mtima wonse ndikumupatsa [Muluzi] chichirikizo changa chonse ndi mgwirizano wanga,” adatero pawailesi ya boma, posonyeza kutha kwa zaka 30 za ulamuliro wa chipani chimodzi cha Malawi.

Chipanichi Banda adachitsogolera kuyambira pomwe adatenga udindo wa Orton Chirwa mchaka cha 1960, Malawi Congress Party, chidakali chovuta kwambiri pandale zaMalawi.

Mwanza trials

Mu 1995, a Banda anamangidwa ndikuimbidwa mlandu wopha anzake omwe kale anali nduna ya boma zaka khumi zapitazo. Anamasulidwa chifukwa chosowa umboni.

Banda sanalape m'malingaliro ake kwa Amalawi, kuwatcha "ana mu ndale" ndikuti adzaphonya ulamuliro wake wachitsulo (onani Big Men, Little People lolemba Alec Russell).

Chikalata chopepesa chinaperekedwa pa 4 January 1996 mdzina la H. Kamuzu Banda kwa anthu amtundu wake atangomasulidwa ku makhoti a Mwanza. Mawuwa adakumana ndi mkangano, kukayikira komanso kunyozedwa. Adafunsidwanso ngati a Banda adalemba yekha chikalatacho kapena ngati wina adalemba m'malo mwake. M'malo mwake, adanenanso kuti:

Machitidwe a boma ndi amphamvu ndipo akuyenera kusintha malinga ndi zofuna ndi zokhumba za anthu...Panthawi ya udindo wanga, ndinadzipereka modzipereka ku ntchito yabwino ya Amayi Malawi polimbana ndi Umphawi, Umbuli ndi Umphawi. Matenda pakati pa nkhani zina zambiri; koma ngati mkati mwa ndondomekoyi, iwo amene anagwira ntchito m’boma langa kapena mwachinyengo chabodza m’dzina langa kapena mosadziwa ndi ine, zowawa ndi kuzunzika zinayambitsidwa kwa aliyense m’dziko muno m’dzina la fuko, ndikupereka chipepeso changa chowona mtima. Ndikupemphanso mzimu wa chiyanjanitso ndi chikhululukiro pakati pathu tonse...Dziko lathu lokongola latchedwa 'Mtima Wofunda wa Africa' ndipo takhala tikumusirira chifukwa cha chikondi chathu ndi mzimu wolimbikira. Kusirira kumeneku sikungofuna kuti tingofunika kuyang'ana zakale ndi zamakono ndi kutengapo phunziro, koma palinso kufunika kokulirapo kwa ife kuyembekezera zam'tsogolo m'zoyesayesa zathu zomanganso ndi kuyanjanitsa ngati tifunikira kusamuka. patsogolo konse.

Moyo ku Malawi kwa Banda

Ziphaso za umembala wachipani

Anthu onse akuluakulu akuyenera kukhala a MCP. Makhadi a chipani amayenera kunyamulidwa nthawi zonse ndikuperekedwa mwachisawawa apolisi. Makhadiwa ankagulitsidwa, nthawi zambiri ndi a Banda a Malawi Young Pioneers (MYP). Nthaŵi zina, achichepere ameneŵa anagulitsanso makadi kwa ana osabadwa.

Malawi Young Pioneers

Gulu la a Malawi Young Pioneers linali gulu lodziwika bwino lachipani cha MCP, lomwe linkakonda kuopseza ndi kuzunza anthu. A Pioneers adanyamula zida, kuchita ntchito zaukazitape komanso zanzeru, komanso anali alonda odalirika a Banda. Anathandiza kulimbikitsa chikhalidwe cha mantha chimene chinalipo muulamuliro wake.

Chipembedzo cha umunthu

A Banda anali munthu wokonda kupembedza. Nyumba iliyonse yamabizinesi inkafunika kukhala ndi chithunzi chovomerezeka chake atapachikidwa pakhoma, ndipo palibe chithunzi, wotchi kapena chithunzi chomwe chikanakhala chapamwamba kuposa chithunzi chake. Filimu iliyonse isanakwane, kanema wa Banda akuwayimbira anthu uku akuimbidwa nyimbo ya fuko. A Banda atayendera mzinda wina, gulu la amayi likuyembekezeka kumulandira pabwalo la ndege ndi kumuvina. Nsalu yapadera, yokhala ndi chithunzi cha pulezidenti, inali chovala chofunika pamasewerowa. Nyumba zolambirira zinkafunika chilolezo cha boma kuti zizigwira ntchito, ndipo zikhulupiriro zina monga Mboni za Yehova zinali zoletsedwa kotheratu.

Kuletsa

Makanema onse owonetsedwa m'makanema adawonedwa koyamba ndi a Malawi Censorship Board ndikusinthidwa kuti awonekere. Umaliseche ndi zinthu zina zosavomerezeka pagulu kapena ndale zidaletsedwa ndipo makanema sanathe ngakhale kuwonetsa maanja akupsompsona. Matepi a vidiyo anayenera kutumizidwa ku Bungwe la Censorship Board kuti awonedwe. Kanemayo atasinthidwa, anapatsidwa chomata chosonyeza kuti tsopano ndi woyenera kuonedwa ndi kutumizidwanso kwa mwini wake. Zinthu zogulitsidwa m'malo ogulitsa mabuku zidasinthidwanso. Masamba, kapena zigawo za masamba, zinadulidwa m’magazini monga Newsweek ndi Time. Mabuku achikomyunizimu, magazini olaula, ndi Lonely Planet's Africa on a Shoestring analetsedwa. Nyumba zoulutsira mawu—wailesi imodzi, nyuzipepala imodzi yatsiku ndi tsiku, ndi nyuzipepala imodzi yamlungu ndi mlungu—zinali zolamuliridwa mwamphamvu ndipo makamaka zinkakhala ngati zoulutsira nkhani zabodza za boma, pamene boma linakana kuyambitsa wailesi yakanema. Komabe, Amalawi olemera adagula ma seti ngati oyang'anira ma VCR awo. Chidziwitso cha mbiri ya Banda asanakhalepo chidalephereka, ndipo mabuku ambiri okhudza nkhanizi adawotchedwa. A Banda akuti amazunza ena mwa mafuko akumpoto (makamaka a Tumbuka), kuletsa zilankhulo ndi mabuku awo komanso aphunzitsi.

Alendo amene anaswa malamulo amenewa nthawi zambiri ankatchedwa Oletsedwa Osamukira m'mayiko ena ndipo amathamangitsidwa.

Kavalidwe ndi Conservatism

Boma lake linkayang’anira miyoyo ya anthu mosamala kwambiri. Kumayambiriro kwa ulamuliro wake, a Banda adakhazikitsa ndondomeko ya kavalidwe yochokera pamalingaliro ake osasamala. Azimayi sankaloledwa kuvala zovala zooneka bwino, kukhala ndi mikwingwirima yooneka, mathalauza, kapena kuvala masiketi kapena madiresi opita pamwamba pa bondo. Kupatulapo pa izi kunali ku malo ochitira tchuthi ndi m'makalabu akumidzi, komwe anthu sakanatha kuwawona. A Banda adalongosola kuti ziletsozi sizinapangidwe pofuna kupondereza amayi, koma kuwapatsa ulemu ndi ulemu. Tsitsi la amuna siliyenera kukhala lalitali kuposa kutalika kwa kolala, ndipo alendo ochokera kumayiko ena pabwalo la ndege adapatsidwa kumeta kovomerezeka ngati kuli kofunikira. Mwamuna aliyense amene anapita pagulu ali ndi tsitsi lalitali ankathanso kugwidwa ndi apolisi n’kumumeta mwadala.

Ngakhale anthu akunja omwe ankabwera ku Malawi ankamvera kavalidwe ka Banda. M’zaka za m’ma 1970, oyembekezera kudzabwera m’dzikolo anauzidwa zinthu zotsatirazi kuti apeze ma visa:

Azimayi apaulendo sadzaloledwa kulowa mdziko muno ngati atavala madiresi achifupi kapena ma thalauza, kupatula paulendo kapena ku Lake Holiday Resorts kapena National park. Masiketi ndi madiresi ayenera kuphimba mawondo kuti agwirizane ndi malamulo a Boma. Kulowa kwa ma hippies ndi amuna atsitsi lalitali ndi mathalauza oyaka ndi koletsedwa.

Nkhani za akazi

Banda adakhazikitsa Chitukuko Cha Amai m'Malawi (CCAM) kuti athetsere nkhawa, zosowa, ufulu ndi mwayi kwa amayi m'Malawi. Bungweli lidalimbikitsa amayi kuchita bwino pamaphunziro ndi boma ndipo lidawalimbikitsa kuti azigwira ntchito molimbika mdera lawo, mipingo ndi mabanja awo. National Advisor wa Foundation anali Cecilia Tamanda Kadzamira, yemwe ndi wolandila alendo kwa Purezidenti wakale.

Zomangamanga

Gawoli likufunika mawu owonjezera kuti atsimikizire. Chonde thandizani kukonza nkhaniyi powonjezera mawu opezeka kumalo odalirika. Zinthu zopanda ntchito zitha kutsutsidwa ndikuchotsedwa. (Julayi 2020) (Dziwani momwe mungachotsere komanso liti uthenga wa template iyi)

M’chaka cha 1964, atakhala nduna ya boma mu ulamuliro wa atsamunda, a Banda adatengera ndondomeko yazachuma yomwe cholinga chake chinali kupititsa patsogolo chitukuko cha chuma kuti Amalawi atukuke. Adakhazikika pazachitsanzo cha Rostow pazachuma, pomwe dziko la Malawi lidalimbikira kuchitapo kanthu pakusintha kwa mafakitale (ISI). Izi zinaphatikizapo kufunitsitsa “kudzikwanilitsa” kwa dziko la Malawi – kusadalila mtsogoleli wao wakale wa atsamunda – komanso kukula kwa mafakitale amene angapangitse kuti dziko la Malawi lizitha kupanga katundu ndi nchito zake. Mphamvu yoteroyo ikadagwiritsidwa ntchito kumenya ngakhalenso kugonjetsa Kumadzulo. Dongosolo lachitukuko cha zomangamanga linayambika pansi pa zikalata za Development Policies (DEVPOLs) zomwe dziko la Malawi lidalandira kuyambira 1964 kupita mtsogolo. Zambiri mwa izi zidaperekedwa ndi bungwe la Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, bungwe la Boma lomwe linakhazikitsidwa kuti litukule chuma cha dziko la Malawi poonjezera kuchuluka kwa malonda a zaulimi komanso kutukula misika yakunja ya zokolola za m’Malawi. Pamaziko ake, ADMARC idapatsidwa mphamvu zothandizira chitukuko cha zachuma ku bungwe lililonse la boma kapena lachinsinsi. Kuchokera ku kupangidwa kwake chinaloŵetsedwamo m’kupatutsa chuma kuchokera ku ulimi waung’ono kupita ku minda ya fodya, yomwe nthaŵi zambiri inali ya mamembala a anthu osankhika olamulira. Izi zidadzetsa katangale, kugwiritsa ntchito molakwika udindo komanso kusachita bwino mu ADMARC,

Zomangamanga za dziko lino zidapindula ndi mapologalamu akuluakulu omanga misewu. Ndi ganizo losamutsa likulu la mzindawu kuchoka ku Zomba kupita ku Lilongwe (motsutsana ndi zotsutsana ndi zomwe Briteni zimakonda ku Blantyre yathanzi pazachuma komanso yotukuka), nsewu watsopano unamangidwa wolumikiza Blantyre ndi Zomba kupita ku Lilongwe. Bungwe la Capital City Development Corporation (CCDC) ku Lilongwe nalonso linali mng'oma wa chitukuko cha zomangamanga, mothandizidwa ndi mapulani ndi ndalama zochokera ku South Africa nthawi ya tsankho. A British adakana kupereka ndalama zosamukira ku Lilongwe. ACCDC idakhala yokhayo yomwe idapereka chitukuko ku Lilongwe; Kukhazikitsa misewu, mpando wa boma ku Capital Hill, ndi zina zotero. Mabungwe ena a zomangamanga anawonjezeredwa, monga Malawi Hotels Limited, yomwe inachita ntchito zazikulu monga Mount Soche, Capital Hotel ndi Mzuzu Hotel. Kumbali ya mafakitale, Malawi Development Corporation (MDC) idapatsidwa ntchito yokhazikitsa mafakitale ndi mabizinesi ena. Panthawiyi, Dr. Banda mwiniwake wa Press Corporation Limited ndi MYP's Spearhead Corporation anayamba kuchita bizinesi zomwe zinapangitsa kuti chuma chitukuke chapakati mpaka kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1970.

Komabe, pofika 1979-80, kuphulika kunali kuphulika chifukwa cha mavuto azachuma padziko lonse omwe anayambitsa nkhondo ya Yom Kippur pakati pa Israeli ndi Aluya mu 1973.

Kavalidwe ndi Conservatism

Boma lake linkayang’anira miyoyo ya anthu mosamala kwambiri. Kumayambiriro kwa ulamuliro wake, a Banda adakhazikitsa ndondomeko ya kavalidwe yochokera pamalingaliro ake osasamala. Azimayi sankaloledwa kuvala zovala zooneka bwino, kukhala ndi mikwingwirima yooneka, mathalauza, kapena kuvala masiketi kapena madiresi opita pamwamba pa bondo. Kupatulapo pa izi kunali ku malo ochitira tchuthi ndi m'makalabu akumidzi, komwe anthu sakanatha kuwawona. A Banda adalongosola kuti ziletsozi sizinapangidwe pofuna kupondereza amayi, koma kuwapatsa ulemu ndi ulemu. Tsitsi la amuna siliyenera kukhala lalitali kuposa kutalika kwa kolala, ndipo alendo ochokera kumayiko ena pabwalo la ndege adapatsidwa kumeta kovomerezeka ngati kuli kofunikira. Mwamuna aliyense amene anapita pagulu ali ndi tsitsi lalitali ankathanso kugwidwa ndi apolisi n’kumumeta mwadala.

Ngakhale anthu akunja omwe ankabwera ku Malawi ankamvera kavalidwe ka Banda. M’zaka za m’ma 1970, oyembekezera kudzabwera m’dzikolo anauzidwa zinthu zotsatirazi kuti apeze ma visa:

Azimayi apaulendo sadzaloledwa kulowa mdziko muno ngati atavala madiresi achifupi kapena ma thalauza, kupatula paulendo kapena ku Lake Holiday Resorts kapena National park. Masiketi ndi madiresi ayenera kuphimba mawondo kuti agwirizane ndi malamulo a Boma. Kulowa kwa ma hippies ndi amuna atsitsi lalitali ndi mathalauza oyaka ndi koletsedwa.

Nkhani za akazi

Banda adakhazikitsa Chitukuko Cha Amai m'Malawi (CCAM) kuti athetsere nkhawa, zosowa, ufulu ndi mwayi kwa amayi m'Malawi. Bungweli lidalimbikitsa amayi kuchita bwino pamaphunziro ndi boma ndipo lidawalimbikitsa kuti azigwira ntchito molimbika mdera lawo, mipingo ndi mabanja awo. National Advisor wa Foundation anali Cecilia Tamanda Kadzamira, yemwe ndi wolandila alendo kwa Purezidenti wakale.

Zomangamanga

Gawoli likufunika mawu owonjezera kuti atsimikizire. Chonde thandizani kukonza nkhaniyi powonjezera mawu opezeka kumalo odalirika. Zinthu zopanda ntchito zitha kutsutsidwa ndikuchotsedwa. (Julayi 2020) (Dziwani momwe mungachotsere komanso liti uthenga wa template iyi)

M’chaka cha 1964, atakhala nduna ya boma mu ulamuliro wa atsamunda, a Banda adatengera ndondomeko yazachuma yomwe cholinga chake chinali kupititsa patsogolo chitukuko cha chuma kuti Amalawi atukuke. Adakhazikika pazachitsanzo cha Rostow pazachuma, pomwe dziko la Malawi lidalimbikira kuchitapo kanthu pakusintha kwa mafakitale (ISI). Izi zinaphatikizapo kufunitsitsa “kudzikwanilitsa” kwa dziko la Malawi – kusadalila mtsogoleli wao wakale wa atsamunda – komanso kukula kwa mafakitale amene angapangitse kuti dziko la Malawi lizitha kupanga katundu ndi nchito zake. Mphamvu yoteroyo ikadagwiritsidwa ntchito kumenya ngakhalenso kugonjetsa Kumadzulo. Dongosolo lachitukuko cha zomangamanga linayambika pansi pa zikalata za Development Policies (DEVPOLs) zomwe dziko la Malawi lidalandira kuyambira 1964 kupita mtsogolo. Zambiri mwa izi zidaperekedwa ndi bungwe la Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, bungwe la Boma lomwe linakhazikitsidwa kuti litukule chuma cha dziko la Malawi poonjezera kuchuluka kwa malonda a zaulimi komanso kutukula misika yakunja ya zokolola za m’Malawi. Pamaziko ake, ADMARC idapatsidwa mphamvu zothandizira chitukuko cha zachuma ku bungwe lililonse la boma kapena lachinsinsi. Kuchokera ku kupangidwa kwake chinaloŵetsedwamo m’kupatutsa chuma kuchokera ku ulimi waung’ono kupita ku minda ya fodya, yomwe nthaŵi zambiri inali ya mamembala a anthu osankhika olamulira. Izi zidadzetsa katangale, kugwiritsa ntchito molakwika udindo komanso kusachita bwino mu ADMARC,

Zomangamanga za dziko lino zidapindula ndi mapologalamu akuluakulu omanga misewu. Ndi ganizo losamutsa likulu la mzindawu kuchoka ku Zomba kupita ku Lilongwe (motsutsana ndi zotsutsana ndi zomwe Briteni zimakonda ku Blantyre yathanzi pazachuma komanso yotukuka), nsewu watsopano unamangidwa wolumikiza Blantyre ndi Zomba kupita ku Lilongwe. Bungwe la Capital City Development Corporation (CCDC) ku Lilongwe nalonso linali mng'oma wa chitukuko cha zomangamanga, mothandizidwa ndi mapulani ndi ndalama zochokera ku South Africa nthawi ya tsankho. A British adakana kupereka ndalama zosamukira ku Lilongwe. ACCDC idakhala yokhayo yomwe idapereka chitukuko ku Lilongwe; Kukhazikitsa misewu, mpando wa boma ku Capital Hill, ndi zina zotero. Mabungwe ena a zomangamanga anawonjezeredwa, monga Malawi Hotels Limited, yomwe inachita ntchito zazikulu monga Mount Soche, Capital Hotel ndi Mzuzu Hotel. Kumbali ya mafakitale, Malawi Development Corporation (MDC) idapatsidwa ntchito yokhazikitsa mafakitale ndi mabizinesi ena. Panthawiyi, Dr. Banda mwiniwake wa Press Corporation Limited ndi MYP's Spearhead Corporation anayamba kuchita bizinesi zomwe zinapangitsa kuti chuma chitukuke chapakati mpaka kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1970.

Komabe, pofika 1979-80, kuphulika kunali kuphulika chifukwa cha mavuto azachuma padziko lonse omwe anayambitsa nkhondo ya Yom Kippur pakati pa Israeli ndi Aluya mu 1973.