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Kudzijambula, 1887, Art Institute ya Chicago

Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [vɪnsɛnt ʋɪləm vɑŋ ɣɔx] 30 March 1853 - 29 July 1890) anali wojambula wa Dutch Post-Impressionist yemwe ndi mmodzi mwa anthu otchuka kwambiri komanso olemekezeka m'mbiri ya zamakono a West. Pa zaka khumi zokha analenga zithunzi pafupifupi 2,100, kuphatikizapo zithunzi 860 za mafuta, ambiri mwa zaka ziwiri zapitazo. Zimaphatikizapo malo, zamoyo, zithunzi komanso zojambulajambula, ndipo zimadziwika ndi mitundu yolimba komanso zojambula zochititsa chidwi, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti maziko a zamakono apange. Adzipha pazaka 37 zotsatira za matenda aumphawi ndi umphawi.

Atabadwira m'banja lapamwamba, Van Gogh adakali mwana ndipo anali wolimba, wamtendere komanso woganizira. Ali mnyamata adagwira ntchito yogulitsa luso, nthawi zambiri akuyenda, koma adasokonezeka atatumizidwa ku London. Anatembenukira ku chipembedzo, ndipo anakhala nthawi yaumishonale wa Chiprotestanti kumpoto kwa Belgium. Anayamba kudwala ndi kudzipatula asanayambe kujambula mu 1881, atabwerera kunyumba ndi makolo ake. Mng'ono wake Theo anamuthandiza pa zachuma, ndipo awiriwo adalemba kalata yaitali. Ntchito zake zoyambirira, makamaka zamoyo ndi ziwonetsero za antchito olima, ali ndi zizindikiro zochepa za mtundu woonekera womwe unasiyanitsa ntchito yake yotsatira. Mu 1886, anasamukira ku Paris, kumene anakumana ndi anthu a avant-garde, kuphatikizapo Emile Bernard ndi Paul Gauguin, omwe anali kutsutsana ndi chidwi cha Impressionist. Pamene ntchito yake inakhazikitsidwa adayambitsa njira yatsopano yopititsira patsogolo miyoyo ya anthu komanso mizinda. Zithunzi zake zinakula kwambiri pamene adayamba kalembedwe kake pamene adakhala ku Arles kum'mwera kwa France mu 1888. Pa nthawiyi adakulitsa nkhani yake kuphatikizapo mitengo ya azitona, minda ya tirigu ndi mpendadzuwa.

Zaka zoyambiriraEdit

Vincent Willem van Gogh anabadwa pa 30 March 1853 ndikulowa m'banja la Dutch Reformed ku Groot-Zundert, m'chigawo chachikulu cha Katolika cha North Brabant kum'mwera kwa Netherlands. Iye anali mwana wamkulu kwambiri wa Theodorus van Gogh, mtumiki wa Tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed, ndi Anna Cornelia Carbentus. Van Gogh anapatsidwa dzina la agogo ake aamuna, ndi a mchimwene wake anabadwa chimodzimodzi chaka chimodzi asanabadwe.Vincent anali dzina lofala m'banja la Van Gogh: agogo ake aamuna, a Vincent (1789-1874), omwe adalandira digiri ya zamulungu pa M'chaka cha 1811, yunivesite ya Leiden, inali ndi ana asanu ndi mmodzi, ndipo atatu mwa iwo anakhala opanga zamalonda. Vincent uyu angakhale atatchulidwa dzina la amalume ake aang'ono, ojambula zithunzi (1729-1802).

Amayi a Van Gogh adachokera ku banja lolemera ku The Hague, ndipo bambo ake anali mwana wamng'ono kwambiri wa mtumiki. Onse awiri anakumana pamene mchemwali wake wa Anna, Cornelia, anakwatira mkulu wa Theodorus, Vincent (Cent). Makolo a Van Gogh anakwatira mu May 1851 ndipo anasamukira ku Zundert. Mbale wake Theo anabadwa pa 1 May 1857. Panali m'bale wina, Cor, ndi alongo atatu: Elisabeth, Anna, ndi Willemina (wotchedwa "Wil"). M'moyo wam'tsogolo Van Vangh adangogwirizana ndi Willemina ndi Theo. Amayi a Van Gogh anali amayi okhwima komanso achipembedzo omwe anagogomezera kufunikira kwa banja mpaka kufotokozera anthu omwe ali pafupi naye. Malipiro a Theodorus anali odzichepetsa, koma Tchalitchi chinapatsa banjali nyumba, mdzakazi, ophika awiri, woyang'anira munda, galimoto ndi kavalo, ndipo Anna adalimbikitsa ana kuti azikhala ndi udindo wopititsa patsogolo banja lawo.

Van Gogh anali mwana wamkulu komanso woganizira. Anaphunzitsidwa pakhomo ndi amayi ake komanso wophunzira, ndipo mu 1860 anatumizidwa ku sukulu ya kumudzi. Mu 1864 adayikidwa ku sukulu ya abusa ku Zevenbergen, komwe adamva kuti achoka, ndipo adalimbikitsidwa kubwerera kwawo. M'malomwake, mu 1866 makolo ake anamutumiza ku sukulu yapakati ku Tilburg, komwe sanasangalale kwambiri. Chidwi chake chojambula chinayamba ali wamng'ono. Analimbikitsidwa kutengera mwana wake ndi mwana wake, ndipo zojambula zake ndizofotokozera, koma sakuyandikira kwambiri ntchito yake yotsatira.Constant Cornelis Huijsmans, yemwe adali katswiri wojambula ku Paris, adaphunzitsa ophunzira ku Tilburg. Filosofi yake inali kukana njira kuti atenge zojambula za zinthu, makamaka zachilengedwe kapena zinthu zofala. Kusakhutira kwakukulu kwa Van Gogh kumawoneka kuti kwakuphimba maphunziro, omwe analibe zotsatira; mu March 1868 adabwerera kwawo mwamsanga. Pambuyo pake analemba kuti unyamata wake unali "wotentha komanso wozizira, wosabala".

Mu Julayi 1869 Bambo ake a uncle a Van Gogh adapeza udindo kwa ogulitsa malonda Goupil & Cie ku The Hague. Atamaliza maphunziro ake mu 1873, adasamutsira ku ofesi ya Goupil ku London ku Southampton Street, ndipo adakhala ku 87 Hackford Road, Stockwell. Iyi inali nthawi yosangalatsa kwa Van Gogh; iye anali wopambana kuntchito, ndipo pa 20 anali kupeza zochuluka kuposa bambo ake. Mkazi wa Theo adanena kuti uwu unali chaka chabwino kwambiri cha moyo wa Vincent. Anakopeka ndi mwana wamkazi wa nyumba yake, Eugénie Loyer, koma anakanidwa atavomereza maganizo ake; iye analumikizidwa mwachinsinsi kwa yemwe kale anali ogona. Iye anakula kwambiri, ndipo anali wolimba mtima mwachipembedzo. Bambo ake ndi amalume ake anakonza zoti apite ku Paris mu 1875, komwe adakwiya kwambiri ndi nkhani monga momwe amachitira zojambulajambula, ndipo adachotsedwa chaka chimodzi.

ReputationEdit

Kwa Zinthu Zakale Za Vincent van GoghEdit

Vincent Willem van Gogh (1890-1978), dzina lake Vincent Willem van Gogh (1890-1978), analandira nyumbayo pambuyo pa imfa ya amayi ake mu 1925. Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1950, adakonza zolemba makalata onse omwe analembedwa m'mabuku anayi ndi zinenero zambiri. Kenaka adayamba kukambirana ndi boma la Dutch kuti athandizire maziko oti agule ndikugulitsa zonsezo. Mwana wa Theo anatenga nawo mbali pokonzekera polojekitiyo poganiza kuti ntchitoyi idzawonetsedwa pansi pazifukwa zabwino. Ntchitoyi inayamba mu 1963; Katswiri wina wa zomangamanga dzina lake Gerrit Rietveld anapatsidwa ntchito yoti apange, ndipo atamwalira mu 1964, Kisho Kurokawa anatenga udindo. Ntchito inapita patsogolo m'zaka za m'ma 1960, ndi 1972 monga cholinga cha kutseguka kwake.

Nyumba ya Van Gogh inatsegulidwa ku Museum Museum ku Amsterdam m'chaka cha 1973. Idamakhala nyumba yachiwiri yotchuka ku Netherlands, pambuyo pa Rijksmuseum, yomwe imalandira alendo oposa 1.5 miliyoni pa chaka. Mu 2015 anali ndi mbiri 1.9 miliyoni; [293] 85 peresenti ya alendo ochokera kumayiko ena.

ZosowaEdit