RTS,S/AS01 (dzina lamalonda Mosquirix) ndi katemera wophatikiziranso wa malungo wophatikizanso. Mu Okutobala 2021, katemerayu adavomerezedwa ndi World Health Organisation (WHO) kuti "agwiritse ntchito kwambiri" mwa ana, ndikupangitsa kuti akhale woyamba kulandira katemera wa malungo, komanso katemera woyamba kuthana ndi matendawa, kuti alandire izi.[1][2][3]

Katemera wa RTS, S adapangidwa ndikupanga kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1980 ndi asayansi omwe amagwira ntchito ku malo ogwirira ntchito a SmithKline Beecham Biologicals (omwe tsopano ndi ma GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Vaccines) ku Belgium. Katemerayu adakonzedwa kudzera mu mgwirizano pakati pa GSK ndi Walter Reed Army Institute of Research ku US state of Maryland ndipo adathandizidwa ndi gawo lina ndi PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative ndi Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Mphamvu yake imakhala pakati pa 26 mpaka 50% mwa makanda ndi ana aang'ono.

Ovomerezedwa kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito ndi European Medicines Agency (EMA) mu Julayi 2015, ndi katemera woyamba wololeza padziko lonse lapansi wokhala ndi zilolezo komanso katemera woyamba wololeza kugwiritsidwa ntchito motsutsana ndi matenda amtundu wa anthu amtundu uliwonse. Pa 23 Okutobala 2015, a Strategic Advisory Gulu la Akatswiri pa Katemera (SAGE) ndi Komiti Yolangizira Malungo (MPAC) onse adalimbikitsa kuyambitsa katemera ku Africa. Ntchito yoyeserera katemera idayambitsidwa pa 23 Epulo 2019 ku Malawi, pa 30 Epulo 2019 ku Ghana, ndi pa 13 Seputembara 2019 ku Kenya.[4][5]

Mbiri yovomerezekaEdit

EMA idavomereza katemera wa RTS, S mu Julayi 2015, ndikulimbikitsa kuti agwiritse ntchito ku Africa kwa ana omwe ali pachiwopsezo chotenga malungo. RTS, S inali katemera woyamba wa malungo padziko lonse lapansi kuti avomereze kugwiritsa ntchito njirayi.[6][7]

Kafukufuku woyambirira akuwonetsa kuti kuchepa kwa magawo ochepa kungapangitse kuti katemera agwire ntchito mpaka 86%.[8][9]

Pa 17 Novembala 2016, WHO idalengeza kuti katemera wa RTS, S ayambitsidwa kuzinthu zoyeserera m'maiko atatu akumwera kwa Sahara ku Africa. Pulogalamu yoyendetsa ndegeyi, yoyendetsedwa ndi WHO, iwunika momwe chitetezo cha katemera chomwe chikuwonetsedwa m'mayeso azachipatala chapamwamba chingatchulidwire m'zochitika zenizeni. Makamaka, pulogalamuyi iwunika kuthekera koperekera katemera wofunikira wa katemera anayi; mphamvu ya katemera pa miyoyo yopulumutsidwa; komanso chitetezo cha katemera potengera momwe ntchito imagwiritsidwira ntchito.[10][11]

Katemera wochokera ku unduna wa zaumoyo ku Malawi, Ghana, ndi Kenya adayamba mu Epulo ndi Seputembara 2019 ndipo amalunjika ana 360,000 pachaka m'malo omwe katemera angakhudze kwambiri. Zotsatirazi zikukonzekera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi World Health Organisation kuti ilangize za katemera yemwe angatengere mtsogolo.[12][13][14] Mu 2021 zidanenedwa kuti katemerayu limodzi ndi mankhwala ena a malungo akaperekedwa munthawi yovutikira kwambiri amatha kuchepetsa imfa ndi matenda kuchokera ku matendawa ndi 70%.

NdalamaEdit

RTS, S yapatsidwa ndalama, posachedwapa, ndi PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) yopanda phindu ndi GlaxoSmithKline ndi ndalama zochokera ku Bill ndi Melinda Gates Foundation. Kupanga katemera wa RTS, S kudawonetsedwa kale kuti ndi kotetezeka, kulekerera bwino, chitetezo chamthupi, komanso kuthekera kothandiza kwa onse omwe ali ndi vuto la malungo komanso malungo komanso ana.

ZolembaEdit

  1. Davies L (6 October 2021). "WHO endorses use of world's first malaria vaccine in Africa". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  2. Template:Cite press release
  3. Mandavilli A (6 October 2021). "A 'Historical Event': First Malaria Vaccine Approved by W.H.O." New York Times. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
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  6. "First malaria vaccine receives positive scientific opinion from EMA". European Medicines Agency. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  7. Walsh F (24 July 2015). "Malaria vaccine gets 'green light'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  8. Birkett A (16 September 2016). "A vaccine for malaria elimination?". PATH.
  9. Regules JA, Cicatelli SB, Bennett JW, Paolino KM, Twomey PS, Moon JE, et al. (September 2016). "Fractional Third and Fourth Dose of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Candidate Vaccine: A Phase 2a Controlled Human Malaria Parasite Infection and Immunogenicity Study". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 214 (5): 762–71. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw237. PMID 27296848.
  10. Chandramohan D, Zongo I, Sagara I, Cairns M, Yerbanga RS, Diarra M, et al. (September 2021). "Seasonal Malaria Vaccination with or without Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention". The New England Journal of Medicine. 385 (11): 1005–1017. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2026330. PMID 34432975.
  11. Roxby P (26 August 2021). "Trial suggests malaria sickness could be cut by 70%". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
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  14. "WHO | MVIP countries: Ghana, Kenya and Malawi".