- Template:Country data Barotseland Protectorate (1900–1964)
- Template:Flagicon image Bechuanaland Protectorate (1885–1966)
- East Africa Protectorate (1895–1920)
- Gambia Colony and Protectorate* (1894–1965)
- Kenya Protectorate* (1920–1963)
- Northern Nigeria Protectorate* (1900–1914)
- Northern Rhodesia (1924–1964)
- Template:Country data Gold Coast Gold Coast (British colony) (1902–1957)
- Template:Country data Nyasaland Nyasaland Protectorate (1893–1964) ( British Central Africa Protectorate until 1907)
- Sierra Leone Protectorate* (1896–1961)
- Southern Nigeria Protectorate (1900–1914)
- Template:Flagicon image Swaziland (1902–1968)
- Uganda Protectorate (1894–1962)
- Template:Flagicon image Walvis Bay (1878–1884)
- Template:Country data Sultanate of Zanzibar (1890–1963)
*protectorates which existed alongside a colony of the same name
The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial forces expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa was placed under protectorate status at some point, although direct rule gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercles, with leaders appointed and removed by French officials.
- Benin traditional states
- Central African Republic traditional states:
- Burkina Faso was since 20 February 1895 a French protectorate named Upper Volta (Haute-Volta)
- Chad: Baghirmi state 20 September 1897 a French protectorate
- Côte d'Ivoire: 10 January 1889 French protectorate of Ivory Coast
- Guinea: 5 August 1849 French protectorate over coastal region; (Riviéres du Sud).
- Niger, Sultanate of Damagaram (Zinder), 30 July 1899 under French protectorate over the native rulers, titled Sarkin Damagaram or Sultan
- Senegal: 4 February 1850 First of several French protectorate treaties with local rulers
- "Histories of the Modern Middle East". Laits.utexas.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- See the classic account on this in Robert Delavignette. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, (1950). The more recent statndard studies on French expansion include:
Robert Aldrich. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Palgrave MacMillan (1996) ISBN 0-312-16000-3.
Alice L. Conklin. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa 1895–1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 978-0-8047-2999-4.
Patrick Manning. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. Cambridge University Press (1998) ISBN 0-521-64255-8.
Jean Suret-Canale. Afrique Noire: l'Ere Coloniale (Editions Sociales, Paris, 1971); Eng. translation, French Colonialism in Tropical Africa, 1900 1945. (New York, 1971).