Kuphatikizidwa kwa Crimea ndi Russian Federation

Mu February ndi March 2014, dziko la Russia linalanda dziko la Crimea ndipo kenako linalanda dziko la Ukraine. Chochitikachi chinachitika pambuyo pa Revolution of Dignity ndipo ndi mbali ya nkhondo ya Russia-Ukraine. Pa 22-23 February 2014, pulezidenti wa Russia Vladimir Putin anaitanitsa msonkhano wa usiku wonse ndi akuluakulu a chitetezo kuti akambirane za kuchotsedwa kwa pulezidenti wochotsedwa ku Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych. Kumapeto kwa msonkhanowo, a Putin adanenanso kuti "tiyenera kuyamba kuyesetsa kubwezeretsa Crimea ku Russia". Pa 23 February, ziwonetsero zochirikiza Russia zidachitika mumzinda wa Crimea wa Sevastopol. Pa 27 February, asilikali obisala a ku Russia opanda zizindikiro adagonjetsa Supreme Council (nyumba ya malamulo) ya Crimea ndipo adalanda malo otetezeka ku Crimea, zomwe zinachititsa kuti boma la pro-Russian Sergey Aksyonov likhazikitsidwe ku Crimea,[1][2] kuchititsa referendum ya Crimea ndi chilengezo cha ufulu wa Crimea pa 16 March 2014. Dziko la Russia linaphatikiza Crimea ngati mayiko awiri a dziko la Russia, Republic of Crimea ndi mzinda wa Sevastopol wa Sevastopol pa 18 March 2014. kulimbitsa chikhalidwe chatsopano pansi.

Kusaina Pangano la kukhazikitsidwa kwa Republic of Crimea ndi Sevastopol ku Russia. Kumanzere kupita kumanja: S. Aksyonov, V. Konstantinov, V. Putin ndi A. Chalyi.

Ukraine ndi mayiko ena ambiri adatsutsa kuphatikizikako ndikukuwona kuti ndikuphwanya malamulo apadziko lonse lapansi komanso mapangano osainidwa ndi Russia oteteza kukhulupirika kwa dziko la Ukraine, kuphatikiza mapangano a 1991 Belavezha omwe adakhazikitsa Commonwealth of Independent States, 1975 Helsinki Accords, 1994. Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances ndi Pangano la 1997 paubwenzi, mgwirizano ndi mgwirizano pakati pa Russian Federation ndi Ukraine. Izi zidapangitsa kuti mamembala ena a G8 panthawiyo ayimitse dziko la Russia m'gululi ndikuyambitsa gawo loyamba la zilango motsutsana ndi dzikolo. United Nations General Assembly idakananso referendum ndi kuphatikizika, kutengera chigamulo chotsimikizira "kukhulupirika kwa dziko la Ukraine m'malire ake odziwika padziko lonse lapansi". Chigamulo cha UN "chikutsimikiziranso kuti referendum ilibe umboni, singakhale maziko a kusintha kulikonse kwa chikhalidwe cha [Crimea]" ndipo inapempha mayiko onse ndi mabungwe apadziko lonse kuti asazindikire kapena kutanthauza kuvomereza kulandidwa kwa Russia. Mu 2016, bungwe la United Nations General Assembly linatsimikiziranso kusavomereza kuphatikizikako ndikudzudzula "kukhala kwa kanthawi kochepa kwa gawo la Ukraine - Autonomous Republic of Crimea ndi mzinda wa Sevastopol".[3][4]

Boma la Russia limatsutsa chizindikiro cha "annexation", pomwe Putin akuteteza referendum ngati ikutsatira mfundo yodziyimira pawokha.[5][6]

MayinaEdit

Mayina a mkangano wa Crimea akhoza kusiyana ndi digiri nthawi zonse. Ku Russia, imadziwika ngati kulowa kwa Crimea ku Russian Federation (Russian: Присоединение Крыма к Российской Федерации, romanized: Prisoyedineniye Kryma k Rossiyskoy Federatsii), kubwereranso kwa Crimea (Russian: Зарыйской земанское, землянское, землянское) , ndi kugwirizananso kwa Crimea.[7][8]

Ku Ukraine, mayinawa amadziwika kuti Temporary occupation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea ndi Sevastopol ndi Russia (Chiyukireniya: Тимчасова окупація Автономної Республіки Крим і Севастополя Роmansosіvayu Autonomous Republic of Autonomous Republic of the Romansopulya, Republiki ya Chiyukireniya Crimea, kugwa kwa Crimea, ndi kuwukiridwa kwa Crimea.[9][10][11][12]

MbiriEdit

Crimea inakhala mbali ya Ufumu wa Russia mu 1783, pamene Crimea Khanate inalandidwa, kenako inakhala mbali ya Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic mpaka 1954. M'magawo oyambirira a Russian Civil War panali mndandanda wa maboma odziimira okha osakhalitsa ( Crimea People's Republic, Crimea Regional Government, Crimea SSR) koma adatsatiridwa ndi maboma a White Russian (General Command of the Armed Forces of South Russia and later South Russian Government). Mu October 1921, Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR inakhazikitsidwa. Pambuyo pa Nkhondo Yachiwiri Yapadziko Lonse komanso kuthamangitsidwa kwa nzika zonse zaku Crimea, Crimea ASSR idalandidwa ufulu wake wodzilamulira mu 1946 ndipo idatsitsidwa kukhala chigawo cha Russian SFSR.

Mu 1954, Crimea Oblast inasamutsidwa kuchoka ku Russian SFSR kupita ku Ukraine SSR ndi lamulo la Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union kuti likumbukire zaka 300 za mgwirizano wa Ukraine ndi Russia. Chochitikacho chinanenedwa ndi Nikita Khrushchev, yemwe anali Mlembi Woyamba wa Chipani cha Chikomyunizimu.

Mu 1989, pansi pa ulamuliro wa Gorbachev wa perestroika, Supreme Soviet inalengeza kuti kuthamangitsidwa kwa Atatars aku Crimea muulamuliro wa Stalin kunali koletsedwa, ndipo mtundu wochuluka wa Asilamu unaloledwa kubwerera ku Crimea.

Mu 1990, Soviet of the Crimea Oblast anaganiza zobwezeretsa Crimea ASSR. Derali lidachita referendum mu 1991, yomwe idafunsa ngati Crimea iyenera kukwezedwa kuti isaina New Union Treaty (ndiko kuti, idakhala republic ya Union palokha). Komabe, panthawiyo, kutha kwa Soviet Union kunali kutatsala pang’ono kutha. Crimea ASSR idabwezeretsedwa kwa nthawi yosakwana chaka chimodzi ngati gawo la Soviet Ukraine ufulu wa Ukraine usanachitike. Ukraine yomwe idangodziyimira yokha idasungabe udindo wodzilamulira wa Crimea, pomwe Supreme Council of Crimea idatsimikizira "ulamuliro" wa peninsula ngati gawo la Ukraine. Akuluakulu aku Ukraine adachepetsa ufulu wa Crimea mu 1995.

Mu Seputembala 2008, Nduna Yowona Zakunja ku Ukraine Volodymyr Ohryzko adadzudzula dziko la Russia popereka ziphaso zaku Russia kwa anthu okhala ku Crimea ndipo adafotokoza kuti ndi "vuto lenileni" lomwe lidaperekedwa ku Russia kuti achitepo kanthu kuti achitepo kanthu kuti ateteze nzika zaku Russia.

Pa Ogasiti 24, 2009, ziwonetsero zotsutsana ndi Chiyukireniya zidachitika ku Crimea ndi nzika zaku Russia. Sergei Tsekov (wa Russian Bloc ndiyeno wachiwiri kwa sipikala wa nyumba yamalamulo ku Crimea) adanena kuti akuyembekeza kuti dziko la Russia lidzachitiranso Crimea monga momwe linachitira ku South Ossetia ndi Abkhazia. Crimea ili ndi anthu amitundu yambiri aku Russia komanso ochepa mwa mafuko a ku Ukraine ndi Crimea Tatars, motero amakhala ndi anthu ambiri ku Ukraine omwe amakhala ku Russia.

Pofika m'chaka cha 2010, akatswiri ena ankaganiza kale kuti boma la Russia linali ndi mapulani osadziwika bwino. Taras Kuzio adanena kuti "Russia ili ndi nthawi yovuta kwambiri yozindikira ulamuliro wa Ukraine pa Crimea ndi doko la Sevastopol - monga momwe anthu aku Russia amaonera, zomwe andale anena, kuphatikizapo mamembala a chipani cholamulira cha United Russia, akatswiri ndi atolankhani." Mu 2011, William Varettoni analemba kuti "Russia ikufuna kulanda Crimea ndipo ikungoyembekezera mwayi woyenera, makamaka ponamizira kuteteza abale aku Russia kunja."[13]

ZolembaEdit

  1. Simon Shuster (10 March 2014). "Putin's Man in Crimea Is Ukraine's Worst Nightmare". Time. Retrieved 8 March 2015. Before dawn on Feb. 27, at least two dozen heavily armed men stormed the Crimean parliament building and the nearby headquarters of the regional government, bringing with them a cache of assault rifles and rocket propelled grenades. A few hours later, Aksyonov walked into the parliament and, after a brief round of talks with the gunmen, began to gather a quorum of the chamber's lawmakers.
  2. De Carbonnel, Alissa (13 March 2014). "RPT-INSIGHT-How the separatists delivered Crimea to Moscow". Reuters. Retrieved 8 March 2015. Only a week after gunmen planted the Russian flag on the local parliament, Aksyonov and his allies held another vote and declared parliament was appealing to Putin to annex Crimea
  3. "A/RES/71/205 – E – A/RES/71/205". undocs.org.
  4. "General Assembly Adopts 50 Third Committee Resolutions, as Diverging Views on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity Animate Voting – Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". United Nations.
  5. Mike Collett-White; Ronald Popeski (16 March 2014). "Crimeans vote over 90 percent to quit Ukraine for Russia". Reuters. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  6. Boris N. Mamlyuk (6 July 2015). "The Ukraine Crisis, Cold War II, and International Law". The German Law Journal. SSRN 2627417.
  7. "Минобороны России учредило медаль "За возвращение Крыма"" [Ministry of Defense of Russia established a medal 'For the Return of Crimea'] (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. March 25, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
  8. "Right of Reply to Russia - "Seventh Anniversary of the Reunification of Crimea with Russia"". U.S. Mission to the OSCE (in English). 2021-03-18. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
  9. "Указ Президента України «Про рішення Ради національної безпеки і оборони України від 11 березня 2021 року "Про Стратегію деокупації та реінтеграції тимчасово окупованої території Автономної Республіки Крим та міста Севастополя"» № 117/2021" [Decree of the President of Ukraine "On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine of March 11, 2021" On the Strategy of deoccupation and reintegration of the temporarily occupied territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol № 117/2021]. Президента України. 24 March 2021. Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  10. "Seven Years of Illegal Occupation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 4 March 2021.
  11. The Fall of Crimea: One Marine's Story Jesse Granger 29 January 2015 www.army.mil, accessed 27 February 2022
  12. "Bitter Crimean Anniversary – Victims of Russian Annexation".
  13. Varettoni, William (21 June 2011). "Crimea's Overlooked Instability". The Washington Quarterly. 34 (3): 87–99. doi:10.1080/0163660X.2011.588128. S2CID 154003492.