Edgar de Wahl

Edgar von Wahl (cropped).jpg

Edgar de Wahl (Olviopol, Ogasiti 11, 1867 - Estonia, 1948) ndiye adapanga chilankhulo chothandizira padziko lonse lapansi chotchedwa Interlingue.

de Wahl anaphunzitsidwa ku Saint Petersburg ndipo modzifunira anamaliza ntchito ya usilikali mu Imperial Russian Navy. Mu 1894, anasamukira ku Tallinn, kumene anakhalako pafupifupi moyo wake wonse. Anagwira ntchito yophunzitsa pasukulu, kuphunzitsa m’masukulu osiyanasiyana ku Tallinn. Nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse isanayambe ndiponso ili mkati, analinso phungu wa mzinda wa Tallinn.

Edgar de Wahl ankakonda kuphunzira zinenero monga ntchito yosangalatsa, anali asanaiphunzire, ndipo sanagwire ntchito yaukatswiri monga katswiri wa zinenero. Chidwi cha De Wahl m'zinenero, ndipo makamaka zinenero zopanga, zinayamba kale pamene adaphunzira ku St. Iye anayamba monga wochirikiza Volapük ndipo kenaka anayamba kuloŵerera m’Chiesperanto, pokhala mmodzi wa Achiesperanto oyambirira. Komabe, m’zaka khumi zomalizira za zaka za zana la 19, kufunafuna chinenero chatsopano choyenerera chapadziko lonse kunayamba, chimene mu 1922 chinatsogolera ku kuyambitsidwa kwa chinenero chotchedwa chinenero cha Azungu ndipo, makamaka, kufalitsidwa kwa magazini a Kosmoglott, amene analinganizidwiratu. kulimbikitsa chilankhulo.

de Wahl adapereka mwayi wokhazikika ku Germany mu 1939, akukhala ku Estonia ndikupita ku chipatala cha amisala cha Seewald panthawi yomwe Germany idalanda. Mu 1945, ali m’chipatala cha anthu odwala matenda amisala, anapulumuka mwangozi kuthamangitsidwa ndipo anafera komweko mu 1948.

Mu 1949, chinenero chimene iye anachipanga chinadzatchedwanso kuti Chinterligue, ndipo ndi dzina limeneli chikudziwikabe mpaka pano.

GweroEdit

Edgar von Wahl anali membala wa mzere wosayendetsedwa wa Päinurme wa Wahls (Haus Assick). Agogo aamuna a Edgar von Wahl anali a Carl Gustav von Wahl omwe adapeza nyumba za Pajusi, Tapik ndi Kavastu komanso anali eni ake a Kaave Manor kwakanthawi kochepa. Carl Gustav von Wahl anali ndi ana okwana 14 ochokera m'maukwati awiri, omwe mizere ingapo ya Wahl idachokera. Mmodzi wa iwo, agogo ake a Edgar von Wahl, Alexei von Wahl, yemwe anali mkulu wa boma amene anagula Päinurme mu 1837, anayala maziko a mzere wa Päinurme. Kuphatikiza apo, anali wobwereka ku Taevere Manor, komwe abambo a Edgar von Wahl, Oskar von Wahl (1841-1906), adabadwa.

Mizu ya Edgar von Wahl inafikira ku England. Mmodzi mwa agogo ake aakazi, Henriette Edwards, mkazi woyamba wa Carl Gustav von Wahl, anali mwana wamkazi wa wamalonda wachingelezi George Edwards. Agogo aakazi ena, Kornelia Elisabeth Knirsch, mkazi wa Alexei von Wahl, anali amayi a Marie Turner wa ku England.

Bambo ake a Edgar von Wahl, Oskar von Wahl, katswiri wa njanji ndi ntchito yake, anakwatira Lydia Amalie Marie von Husen (1845-1907) ku Tallinn mu 1866.

WambiriEdit

Ubwana ndi unyamataEdit

Edgar von Wahl anabadwira ku Olviopol, Ukraine, pa August 23, 1867. Makolo ake adasamukira kumeneko chifukwa Oskar von Wahl anayamba kugwira ntchito pa njanji ya Odesa-Balta-Krementšuk-Kharkov ku 1866. 4 Pali zotsutsana zokhudzana ndi malo enieni a njanji. Kubadwa kwa Wahl. Monga lamulo, mzinda umene anabadwira ndi mzinda wa Olviopol, koma pali magwero35 omwe akuphatikizapo mzinda wa Bogopil (komanso Bogopol) pafupi ndi Olviopol, kudutsa Mtsinje wa South Bug, monga malo ake obadwira. Mizinda yonse iwiriyi yadziwika m’magwero ena.

Pofika 1869 posachedwa, banja la Wahl linasamukira ku Krementšuk. Abale ake onse a Wahl anabadwira kumeneko: Oskar Paul Karl, yemwe anamwalira ali khanda mu 1869, ndi Arthur Johann Oskar (anamwalira 1951) mu 1870. Alongo ake awiri a Wahl, Lydia Jenny Cornelia (1871-1917) ndi Harriet Marie Jenny (1873-1873- 1920) anabadwira ku Tallinn ndi Jenny Theophile (anamwalira 1961) ku Saint Petersburg mu 1877.

Banjali linasamukira ku Saint Petersburg mu 1876 pambuyo pa nthawi yapakati ku Tallinn. M’chaka chomwecho, Edgar von Wahl anayamba kuphunzira pa 3rd St. Petersburg Gymnasium, ndipo anamaliza maphunziro ake mu 1886. Kenako anaphunzira za zomangamanga ndipo kenako anaphunzira kujambula pa yunivesite ya St. Petersburg Faculty of Physics and Mathematics komanso pa Academy of Petersburg Arts. Atalowa ku yunivesite mu 1886, Wahl adalowa nawo ku Nevania Baltic German corporation, yomwe inkagwira ntchito ku St. zojambulajambula pa Sukulu ya Elementary ya Academy of Arts mu 1893. Atamaliza maphunziro awo ku koleji, Wahl anagwira ntchito mwachidule monga mphunzitsi wolowa m'malo ku St. Petersburg chakumapeto kwa 1891, koma kuti alowe usilikali.

Wahl adaphunzira zilankhulo zingapo ali mwana komanso wachinyamata. Ali mwana, anaphunzira Chijeremani, Chirasha, Chiestonia ndi Chifalansa, kusukulu ya sekondale yapamwamba anaphunzira Chilatini ndi Chigiriki chakale, ndi Chispanya ku yunivesite. M’mawu a Wahl mwiniwake, iye anali kale ndi chikhumbo chopanga chinenero chatsopano ali mwana. Kwa masewera a ku India, adapanga "chinenero cha Indian", galamala yomwe inachokera ku Greek ndi Estonian.

Utumiki wa usilikaliEdit

 
Edgar de Wahl atavala yunifolomu yankhondo yaku Russia mu 1914.

Mu 1892, de Wahl anadzipereka kutumikira m’gulu la asilikali apamadzi a ku Russia. Pautumiki wake, de Wahl adayenda kwambiri, akuyendera zilumba za Caribbean ndi United States, pakati pa ena. Kumayambiriro kwa chaka cha 1894, adalandira udindo wa mitchman, ndikupuma posakhalitsa. Anatumikira ku Baltic Fleet mpaka October 1905. Panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, sanaloŵe nawo m’nkhondo za Nkhondo ya Russo-Japan.

Malinga ndi zokumbukira za Olev Mikiver, wojambula waku Estonia yemwe amamudziwa bwino de Wahl ali wachinyamata, adanyadira kwambiri yunifolomu ya mkulu wake wanthawi yachifumu ndipo nthawi zina amavala zaka makumi angapo pambuyo pake:

E. de Wahl, mwa njira, anali msilikali wa asilikali ankhondo a Tsar ali wamng'ono ndipo, malinga ndi mawu ake, analetsa kupanduka kwa oyendetsa sitima ku Sveaborg, doko la asilikali kapena linga la nyanja la Helsinki, lomwe tsopano limatchedwa Suomenlinna, mu 1905. kapena 1906. Ayenera kuti ankaona kuti nthawiyi ndi yopatulika, chifukwa patapita zaka makumi angapo, mwachitsanzo, paukwati wa mlongo wanga, adawonekera mu yunifolomu ya tsarist.

Memoirs of Olev Mikiver, lofalitsidwa mu 1993

Komabe, n’zokayikitsa kuti de Wahl sakanatha kutenga nawo mbali poletsa kuukira kwa Viapor, chifukwa panthaŵiyo n’kuti atamasulidwa kale.” Malinga ndi malipoti ena, de Wahl anayambiranso kugwira ntchito mwakhama pa nthawi ya nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse.

Pautumiki wake mu Russian Navy, Wahl anapatsidwa udindo wa 2 ndi 3 wa Order of Saint Stanislav ndi udindo wa 3 wa Order of Saint Anne.

Kuyambira 1921 de Wahl adalembetsedwanso ngati woyang'anira nkhokwe wa Republic of Estonia.

Nthawi yoyambirira ya TallinnEdit

Kumapeto kwa 1894, de Wahl anasamukira ku Tallinn, kumene anakhala zaka zambiri za moyo wake. M’dzinja la chaka chomwecho, analandira udindo wa mphunzitsi wa masamu ndi physics pa Sukulu ya Sekondale ya Sayansi ya St. Peter’s ku Tallinn. Anapitirizabe kuphunzitsa zojambulajambula kusukulu ya Baroness von der Howen Girls, Hanseatic School, Cathedral School, ndi kwina kulikonse. , wophunzitsa pambuyo pake yemwe adaphunzira ku Royal School of Saint Peter kuyambira 1906 mpaka 1909:

Masamu ndi physics adaphunzitsidwanso ndi Edgar von Wahl, yemwe kale anali msilikali wa panyanja yemwe nthawi zonse anali ndi ndemanga zochepa zokopa za chochitika kapena munthu. Anali wodetsedwa kwambiri poyesa physics: ziwiya ndi magalasi nthawi zambiri zimasweka. Maganizo ake kwa ophunzira anali ophweka, omwe amatsimikiziridwa ndi dzina lakutchulidwa la Sass.

Zokumbukira za Alexander Oddma

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka zana, ntchito yotsatsa ya Wahl inayamba. Anasindikiza nkhani zokhudzana ndi zinenero m'mabuku apadera, komanso zolemba m'manyuzipepala ndi m'magazini osiyanasiyana a Tallinn.

Khansala wa mzinda nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse isanayambe komanso ili mkatiEdit

Kuphatikiza pa kugwira ntchito yophunzitsa, de Wahl adalowanso ndale nkhondo yoyamba yapadziko lonse isanayambe. Mu 1913 anasankhidwa kukhala m’bungwe la mzinda wa Tallinn. M’chaka chomwecho, anakhala membala wa komiti ya khonsolo yoteteza zipilala za nyumba zakale. Ngakhale kuti anali kuphunzitsa, Wahl sanagwirizane ndi nkhani za maphunziro pa City Council. Anali wokangalika pamisonkhano ya khonsolo, koma samalankhula zochepa.

Pambuyo pa nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse, Ajeremani omwe ankakhala mu Ufumu wa Russia anazunzidwa, zomwe sizinamusiye de Wahl osakhudzidwa. Mwachitsanzo, kalabu ya Tallinn Noble Club, imene Wahl anali m’gulu lake, inatsekedwa. Chakumapeto kwa 1914, iye anapezeka ali pachimake pa nkhani zabodza zosintha mayina a malo achijeremani. Monga phungu wa mzindawo, adatenga nawo mbali pazokambirana za kusintha dzina la mzinda wa Tallinn, zomwe zinatsatira maganizo a Meya Jaan Poska kuti alowe m'malo mwa Revel wolankhula Chijeremani ndi Kolyvan wakale wa chinenero cha Chirasha (potero, dzina linagwiritsidwa ntchito). pokambirana za nkhaniyi). de Wahl anapeza kuti mayina akale kwambiri a mzindawu anali Ledenets kapena Lindanisa. Anachitanso chidwi ndi ndalama zosinthira dzinali, zomwe akuti zidakumana ndi "kuseka kwachiwopsezo" m'bwaloli. Mavoti ofunikira kuti asinthe dzina adasonkhanitsidwa ku khonsolo, koma kusintha komweko sikunapangidwe.

de Wahl adasankhidwanso kukhala khonsolo ya mzinda mu 1917 pazisankho zomwe zidachitika February Revolution isanachitike. Pa khonsolo yatsopanoyi, adakhala membala wa dipatimenti yozimitsa moto mu mzindawu, maphunziro a anthu, ndi makomiti oyendetsa ntchito zapawnbroker, komanso adapitilizabe kukhala membala wa Monument Building Commission. Komabe, mu August 1917, bungwe latsopano linasankhidwa, ndipo ntchito za ndale za de Wahl zinatha.

Moyo ku Estonia yodziimiraEdit

Mu February 1918, pa nthawi imene de Wahl analengeza ufulu wodzilamulira, ananena kuti akufuna kukhala m’gulu la apolisi. Chilolezo cha mfuti chinalembedwa kwa iye ndi wophunzira wake, yemwe adakumbukira mfundo iyi:

Pakati pa omwe ankafuna kupanga zida, ndimakumbukira mmodzi yekha: mphunzitsi wanga wa physics, wochokera ku Wahl. Ndikuwoneka kuti ndikukumbukira chifukwa cha maganizo omwe akanatha kubwera m'moyo wa wophunzira wachichepere pamene mphunzitsi wake amupempha chida.

N.Rg. wophunzira wakale wasukulu yachifumu adayamba mu 1934

Mu 1919, Peetri Realkool anagawidwa m'magulu awiri: Sukulu ya Sayansi ya Tallinn ya chinenero cha Chiestonia ndi Tallinn High School of Science ya Chijeremani. de Wahl anapitirizabe kukhala mphunzitsi pamapeto pake, kumene adaphunzitsa makalasi a masamu, physics, geography, cosmography, ndi zojambula. chotero, chotero, anatchedwa “kanyumba” pakati pa ophunzira.” Pakati pa ophunzira, de Wahl anali mphunzitsi wotchuka amene anali wodzipereka kwambiri kuphunzitsa za geography, mwinamwake chifukwa chakuti anayenda ulendo wautali. Ophunzirawo anachitanso chidwi ndi mfundo yakuti de Wahl anali membala wa English Club, yomwe inkagwira ntchito pasukuluyi.

Anali wolunjika kwambiri, choncho akanatha kukangana ndi aphunzitsi ena. Mwachitsanzo, iye sanakonde luso lamakono lamakono, mfundo imene anaifotokoza poyera pa ulendo wopita ku chionetsero cha zojambulajambula ataitanidwa ndi mphunzitsi wa zojambulajambula pasukulupo. Anayerekeza luso lamakono ndi chikominisi:

Zamakono! Chotero phunzitsani anyamata chikominisi! Palinso chinachake chamakono ponena za zimenezo!

Mawu akuti adanenedwa nthawi ndi malo osadziwika ndi Edgar von Wahl

de Wahl adapuma pantchito chapakati pa zaka za m'ma 1920, koma anapitirizabe kuphunzitsa kwa nthawi yochepa mpaka 1933. Atapuma pantchito, adachita zokonda zake, makamaka zilankhulo zopanga zomwe zidakhala nkhani yaumwini kuyambira masiku a St. analinso mkonzi wa magazini yotchedwa Estländische Wochenschau kuyambira 1929 mpaka 1930. Panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, chidwi chake pa wolosera wa ku France wa m’zaka za zana la 16 Nostradamus ndi maulosi ake chinakula, zimene anakambirana ndi The News m’chilimwe cha 1932.

Pa nthawi ya nkhondo yachiwiri ya padziko lonseEdit

Mu 1939, mosiyana ndi okondedwa ake, de Wahl sanachoke m'kati mwa kusamukira kwawo ndipo anaganiza zokhala ku Estonia. De Wahl, yemwe ankaimira maganizo a anthu a ku Ulaya, sanali kukondweretsa boma la National Socialist la Germany. Anatchulanso dziko la Germany kuti ndi "chiswe". N’kuthekanso kuti chifukwa chimene anakhalira ku Estonia n’chakuti pamene ankachoka, anayenera kusiya nkhokwe zake zambiri, ndiponso ngozi yoti akakhale ku nyumba yopumirako ku Germany ingakhale inathandiza, monga mmene zinalili ndi anzake ena. . .

de Wahl nayenso anapewa kusamuka kumene kunachitika m’chaka cha 1941. Mulimonsemo, iye ankadziwa za kusamuka komwe kunatsatira, chifukwa atafunsidwa za zolinga zake, iye anayankha mosakayikira kuti chigamulo chake chinali choti akhalebe ku Estonia. :

Hitler ameneyu, wamisala ameneyu, amaletsa chinenero changa m’maiko onse amene amawagonjetsa. Munthu uyu ndi wamisala! Edgar von Wahl m'nyengo yozizira ya 1941

M'chaka choyamba cha kuponderezedwa kwa Soviet, de Wahl anatha kuthawa. Pambuyo pa chiyambi cha ulamuliro wa Germany, iye ankakayikira ntchito zotsutsana ndi boma. de Wahl anamangidwa pa Ogasiti 12, 1943, chifukwa cha makalata omwe adatumizidwa kwa Posen, mlamu wake, koma adalowa muulamuliro ku Königsberg mu Julayi chaka chimenecho, pomwe adaneneratu za kuwukira ku Poland ndikulangiza okondedwa omwe amakhala kumeneko kupita ku Germany:

Tikumbukenso kuti pambuyo kutha kwa Bolshevism, cha m'ma 1944, pamene German-Allied asilikali kuyandikira Asia Minor oopsa kuchokera kumpoto kuti athetse kuukira Aarabu, koma osati kale, n'zokayikitsa kuti pochotsa asilikali m'mayiko anagonjetsa. ndi Germany, a Poles amayesa kuyambitsa zipolowe (ali kale ndi misasa ya zida zachinsinsi), ndiyeno mkangano waudani womwe wakhalapo kwa nthawi yayitali ukhoza kusanduka kuphana koopsa komwe kumakhala m'midzi yakale ya ku Poland ndi nyumba zazikulu. A Balt ali pachiwopsezo. Chifukwa chake, ndikufuna kukuchenjezani inu ndi ena onse omwe ali mumkhalidwe womwewo ndikukupemphani kuti muchoke ku Wartegau ngati kuli kotheka, kapena njira iliyonse yothawirako pamene chipwirikiti cha Aarabu chikayamba. Tumizani Reich pa nthawi yake. Ndikupempha kuti kalata imeneyi, imene ndakulemberani tsopano, mu July 1943, isungidwe monga chikalata ndipo, ngati n’kotheka, ipatsidwe kwa ena kuti aifufuze.

Kalata yochokera kwa Edgar von Wahl kupita kwa Lieselotte Riesenkampff ku Tallinn pa Julayi 18, 194337

M'kalata yomweyi, Wahl adanena kuti adaneneratu za kuukira kwa Pearl Harbor ndi kuphulika kwa nkhondo pakati pa United States ndi Japan. de Wahl sanakane zomwe analemba panthawi yomvetsera ndipo adabwereza zifukwa zingapo zomwe adaziimba kumeneko, "akukhulupirira mwamphamvu" zoona za maulosi ake. de Wahl anachitidwa kwa nthawi ndithu ku Tallinn Labor and Education Camp, koma umboni womwe unaperekedwa panthawi ya mafunso ake unkaonedwa kuti ndi wachilendo ndi SD ndipo chifukwa chake de Wahl anayesedwa ku chipatala cha mitsempha ya Seewald. Kumeneko anamupeza kuti anali wofooka muukalamba ndipo anagonekedwa m’chipatala cha anthu amisala, chimene chinamupulumutsanso ku chilango cha imfa chomwe chingatheke. Wahl nayenso anatetezedwa ndi achibale angapo apamtima ndi anzake omwe ankati iye sanali ndi udindo pa zochita zake.3436

Pakuphulitsidwa kwa mabomba mu March 1944, nkhokwe ya de Wahl inawonongedwa, zomwe zinamudabwitsa kwambiri. Zaka zitatu pambuyo pake, m’kalata yopita kwa Wakumadzulo wa ku Finnish A. Z. Ramstedt, iye anakumbukira kuti zimene zinachitikazo zinali tsoka lenileni, pamene zinthu zambiri zosasinthika ndi zapadera zinatayika.

Masiku otsiriza ndi imfaEdit

 
Mwala wapamanda wa Edgar de Wahl ku Pajus.

Mndandanda wa zochita zothamangitsidwa ku Germany zomwe zinalembedwa mu February 1945 zinaphatikizapo dzina la de Wahl, monga momwe Ajeremani ena ankakhala ku Estonia. Komabe, pothamangitsidwa m’mwezi wa Ogasiti, de Wahl anali m’gulu la anthu khumi ndi aŵiri omwe sanathamangitsidwe m’dzikolo kapena amene sakanadziŵika kumene anali. Ngakhale zifukwa zomwe de Wahl athawire sizidziwika bwino, zimadziwika kuti nthawi zina mkulu wa gulu lomwe linathamangitsa anthuwo adasankha kuti asatengere odwala kwambiri kapena olumala, chigamulocho chikhoza kutengera maganizo a ogwira ntchito m’chipatala. Choncho, kunali kukhalapo kwake kuchipatala cha amisala omwe mwina adapulumutsa de Wahl kachiwiri.

Atathawa kuthamangitsidwa, de Wahl adathabe kulemberana makalata ndi anzake akunja. Madokotala a Seewald ayenera kuti adazindikira kudzipereka kwake ku philology pamene adapanga kulumikizana ndi dziko lakunja kukhala kotheka.

Wahl anamwalira pa 3 koloko masana pa March 9, 1948. Anaikidwa m'manda pa March 14 ku manda a Alexander Nevsky ku Tallinn.

ChinterligueEdit

MbiriEdit

Kuyesetsa kwa Wahl kuti apange chilankhulo chatsopano komanso choyenera kuti azilankhulana ndi mayiko ena kudayamba ndi chidwi chofala cha zilankhulo zopanga mu Ufumu wa Russia kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1900 ndi kumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana la 20. Ku Saint Petersburg, de Wahl anayamba kuchita chidwi ndi Volapük yongopangidwa kumene, ndipo kenako Esperanto. Nthawi ina pakati pa 1887 ndi 1888, de Wahl, kupyolera mwa abambo ake, anakumana ndi mnzake Waldemar Rosenberger, yemwe anali kuchita nawo Volapük panthawiyo, kotero Wahl poyamba adatsatira Volapük mwiniwakeyo. Anakhala wothandizira wa Volapük, koma posakhalitsa, theka loyamba la 1888, adadziwika ndi Esperanto ndipo adasintha. buku loyamba la Esperanto lofalitsidwa mu 1887. Iye anali mmodzi mwa omwe anayambitsa Espera, gulu loyamba la Esperanto ku Russia, lomwe linakhazikitsidwa ku Saint Petersburg mu 1891, komanso anakhala mtolankhani wa magazini ya La Esperantisto. Iye anamasulira nkhani zopeka za Chirasha m’Chiesperanto n’kupanga dikishonale ya Chiesperanto-Chisipanishi.

Komabe, de Wahl sanatsatire kwenikweni Esperanto, koma adayamba kufunafuna chilankhulo chatsopano, Paul Ariste zifukwa zomwe adachitira izi:

Iye anali ndi khalidwe losakhazikika, nthawizonse chinachake chatsopano. Chifukwa cha khalidweli, pamene anali wamng'ono, ankakonda kulimbikitsa mapangidwe atsopano a zilankhulo zopanga [...].

Paul Ariste mu 1967.

Malinga ndi Jaan Ojalo, Wahl adachoka ku Esperanto pambuyo poti ambiri a Esperantists anakana malingaliro oti asinthe chinenerocho mu 1894. Malingaliro angapo osintha chinenerocho anachokera kwa Wahl mwiniwake. Anapeza kuti chinenero choyenera cha mayiko chiyenera kukhala chachibadwa komanso chomveka ngakhale osaphunzira. Malinga ndi maganizo a Ojalo, Wahl ankaonanso kuti Esperanto ndi yademokalase kwambiri, zomwe zimawopseza chikhalidwe cha azungu.

Kulenga ndi mawu oyambaEdit

 
Chizindikiro cha Wakumadzulo, chomwe chimaimira nkhupakupa mkati mwa bwalo, chinayambitsidwa chaka cha 1934 chisanafike ndipo chinasankhidwa kuchokera ku mitundu ingapo chifukwa cha kuphweka kwake ndi zizindikiro zake monga momwe zimakhalira ndi kulankhulana.[1]

de Wahl anatenga njira zoyamba kupanga chinenero chatsopano m'zaka zomaliza za zaka za m'ma 1900. Mu 1896 ndi 1897 adasindikiza nkhani ziwiri m'magazini ya Linguist yofalitsidwa ku Hannover, momwe adafotokozera malingaliro ake. Pafupifupi nthawi yomweyo, Rosenberger, yemwe adadziwana ndi de Wahl m'zaka khumi zomaliza za zana lino ndipo panthaŵiyo anali pulezidenti wa Volapük Academy ku Saint Petersburg, anadziwitsa mamembala a sukuluyi chinenero chatsopano cha chilengedwe chake: osalowerera ndale. chinenero. Kuyambira mu 1906, Rosenberger adafalitsanso magazini ya Progress m'chinenero chatsopano ku Saint Petersburg. M'buku lomwelo, de Wahl adapanga malingaliro ake mu 1906 kuti asinthe chinenerocho, chomwe Rosenberg adachilandira patatha chaka chimodzi. Ngakhale kusinthaku, mwambi wosalowerera ndale sunatchuke ndipo unazimiririka. Nthawi yomweyo, de Wahl adapanga AULI (Auxiliari Lingue International), yomwe idakhazikitsidwa ndi zilankhulo za Romance, zomwe zidakhala gawo lapakati pachilankhulo chakumadzulo, ndipo adaziwonetsa mu 1909 m'magazini ya Academia pro Interlingua - Discussiones. Mu 1911, de Wahl adapanga lamulo lopanga mawu lomwe lidapanga maziko a Occidental.

Mu 1916, anthu okonda chinenero cha ku Russia anayambitsa bungwe la Cosmoglot Association ku St. de Wahl sanali m'modzi mwa omwe adayambitsa bungweli, koma pambuyo pake adalowa nawo, monga momwe adachitira katswiri wa zilankhulo waku Estonia Jakob Linzbach. de Wahl adakhala wolankhulira "sukulu yachilengedwe" pagulu; potero ndikukonza njira yolengezera Kumadzulo. Ndi zochitika zakusintha mu 1917 ndi kuchoka kwa mamembala ake ku St. Zochita zamayanjano zidatsitsimutsidwa ndi de Wahl pamodzi ndi Linzbach, ndipo dzina la bungweli linasinthidwa kukhala Cosmoglott. Maulalo adasungidwanso ndi omwe kale anali mamembala a bungweli, omwe tsopano akugwira ntchito m'maiko angapo a ku Europe. de Wahl analinso mkonzi wa magazini ya Cosmoglott yofalitsidwa ndi bungwe kuchokera ku 1922 mpaka 1926. M'magazini yoyamba ya magazini yomweyi, de Wahl anayambitsa chinenero chochita kupanga chomwe adalenga, Occidental. Kuyambira 1923 mpaka 1928, adayambitsanso chilankhulo cha Occidental, unic natural, vermen neutral e max facil e comprensibil lingue por International relationes. de Wahl adatulutsa buku mu 1925 lotchedwa Radicarium directiv del lingue International (Occidental). En 8 lingues.

KufalitsaEdit

M’kope loyamba la magaziniyo, chimodzi mwa zoyesayesa zoyamba za anthu kuti apeze chidwi cha mayiko kaamba ka ntchito zake chinasindikizidwanso. Kunena kuti, kalata yotumizidwa ku League of Nations pa September 5, 1921, inasindikizidwa, yolimbikitsa kuyambika kwa chinenero changwiro, osati kwenikweni kulankhulana kofala pakati pa anthu, kumene kukapezeka mosavuta. Kuti tipeze chinenero choyenerera, analangizidwa kuti pakhale mpikisano ndi kuti ofuna kusankhidwa awonedwe ndi komiti ya akatswiri yokonzedwa ndi League of Nations. Bungwe la League of Nations linakana ganizoli.

Ngakhale kuti bungwe la League of Nations linalephera, azungu anakopa anthu ambiri okonda Ido, koma Aesperantisti anakhalabe okhulupirika ku chinenero chawo. Malingana ndi Paul Ariste, panali zotsutsana pakati pa ma idistas, ndipo pambuyo pa pempho la Wahl kuti ayambe kulimbikitsa zochitika za occidental.

 
Edgar de Wahl ndi Azungu ku Vienna mu 1927: kuchokera kumanzere kupita kumanja Hanns ndi Johann Robert Hörbiger, Engelbert Pigal ndi Edgar de Wahl.

Komabe, m’zaka za m’ma 1920, magulu atsopano a Azungu anatulukira. Mu 1927, International Cosmoglot Association inakhazikitsidwa, yomwe patapita chaka inadzatchedwa Occidental-Union. Kuyambira 1927 magazini ya Cosmoglott inayamba kusindikizidwa ku Vienna m'malo mwa Tallinn pansi pa dzina lakuti Cosmoglotta. M'nkhani yaposachedwa ya Tallinn, de Wahl adasindikiza, mwa zina, ndakatulo ya Lydia Koidula pamutu wakuti "Max galimoto donation". Kwa de Wahl payekha, kutchuka kwa chilankhulo chatsopano kunabweretsa kutchuka padziko lonse lapansi. Ankachita ulaliki m’mayiko osiyanasiyana a ku Ulaya ndipo ankalankhulana kwambiri ndi akatswiri a zinenero. Mu 1939, mwina anali munthu wa ku Estonia yekha amene anaitanidwa ku msonkhano wa 5 wa Linguistic Conference ku Brussels. Zochita zake zamalankhulidwe sizinafike pamavuto akulu achilankhulo, koma zidangopanga chilankhulo chake chopanga komanso kuthana ndi mafunso okhudzana nawo.

Occidental sanapeze kutchuka kofanana ndi kwa Esperanto, ngakhale kuti de Wahl ankafuna kupanga chinenero choyenera kulankhulana ndi mayiko. Mosiyana ndi Esperanto, yomwe idakhala chilankhulo chodziwika bwino pakati pamagulu ogwira ntchito, olankhula Occidental munthawi yankhondo anali ambiri aluntha aku Western Europe.

Mu 1949, pambuyo pa imfa ya Wahl, Western inatchedwanso Chinterligue kuchotsa kutchulidwa kwa Kumadzulo ndikupangitsa chinenerocho kukhala chapadziko lonse. Malinga ndi Pekka Erelt, dzina lokhudzana ndi "Western" la chinenerocho linachedwetsa kufalikira kwake ku Eastern bloc. Pambuyo pakusintha dzina la chilankhulo, Occidental-Union idakhala Interlingue-Union monga momwe zilili lero. Mgwirizanowu uli ndi sukulu yawoyawo ndipo magazini ya Cosmoglotta imasindikizidwabe ndi bungweli.

Moyo waumwiniEdit

BanjaEdit

Wahl anakwatira Maria von Hübbenet (1871-1933), mwana wamkazi wa dokotala waumwini wa Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, ku Saint Petersburg mu 1894. Anali ndi ana asanu: Johann kapena Hans (1895-1968), Guido (1896-?) , Ellen (wobadwa ndi kufa 1900), Anatol (1903-1972), ndi Lydia Maria (1907-1989). Ukwatiwo unatha mu 1913, kenako Johann, Guido ndi Lydia anakhala ndi bambo ake a Maria. Anatol anakhala ndi amayi ake, amene anasamukira ku Finland, ndipo patapita nthaŵi Lydia Maria anapitanso kumeneko. Ana aakulu a de Wahl anasamukira ku Germany kumayambiriro kwa nkhondo yoyamba ya padziko lonse ndipo anali m’gulu la asilikali a ku Germany pankhondoyo. Guido anakhala patchuthi chachifupi ku Tallinn pa nthawi imene dziko la Germany linalanda dziko la Germany, koma chakumapeto kwa chaka chino iye anazimiririka pankhondoyo. , Volker (wobadwa 1935) ndi Asko (wobadwa 1937), amakhala ku Germany ndikuchita nawo ntchito za Baltic Cavalry Association kumeneko.

Mu 1914, de Wahl anakwatira Agnes Riesenkampff. Mofanana ndi mwamuna wake, Agnes anali mphunzitsi, akuphunzitsa masewera olimbitsa thupi m’masukulu osiyanasiyana a ku Tallinn.

ZokondaEdit

Kuwonjezera pa zinenero, Edgar de Wahl ankayeserera kuyenda panyanja. Mu 1895 anakhala membala wa gulu la Estonian Imperial Maritime Yacht Club, ndipo m’zaka zotsatira anagwira nawo ntchito mwakhama, pokhala membala wa komiti yake ya luso ndi kukhala mlembi wa gululo. Anapanganso buku la chaka lomwe linaperekedwa pazaka 25 za kalabu mu 1913. Mu 1922, de Wahl anakhala membala wolemekezeka wa gululo. Iye anali ndi zombo zingapo pazaka zambiri, imodzi mwa izo, ketch yotchedwa Auli, akuti inapangidwa ndi iyemwini.

ZofalitsaEdit

  • Edgar von Wahl. Flexion und Begriffsspaltung. – Linguist 1896, nr 10.
  • Edgar von Wahl. Ausnahmen. – Linguist 1897, nr 3.
  • Edgar de Wahl. [Idiom neutral reformed]. – Progres 1906, nr 6.
  • Julian Prorók. Ketzereien: Keimzellen einer Philosophie. Tartu, Leipzig 1906.
  • Edgar de Wahl. AULI = Auxiliari lingue International. – Discussiones 1909, nr 1-2.
  • Edgar de Wahl. Li leges de derivation en verbes. - Lingua Internationale 1911, nr 1.
  • Edgar von Wahl. Kaiserlicher Estländischer See-Yacht-Club: historische Übersicht 1888-1913. Tallinn 1913.
  • Edgar de Wahl. Qual instructiones da nos li historie de lingue universal. – Kosmoglott 1922, nr 1, lk 6–8.
  • Edgar de Wahl. Radicarium directiv del lingue international (occidental): in 8 lingues. Tallinn 1925.
  • Edgar de Wahl. Interlinguistic reminiscenties. – Cosmoglotta 1927, nr 41, lk 54–64.
  • Edgar de Wahl. Occidental: gemeinverständliche europäische Kultursprache für internationalen Verkehr: Begründung, Grammatik, Wortbildung, vergleichende textproben. Tallinn, Viin 1928.
  • Edgar de Wahl, Otto Jespersen. Discussiones inter E. de Wahl e O. Jespersen. Chapelle 1935.
  • Edgar de Wahl. Spiritu de interlingue. Cheseaux/Lausanne, 1953.

MaumboniEdit

  1. Engelbert Pigal. Li question del insigne de occidental – Cosmoglotta 1934, nr 92, lk 7.