Chifuwa Chachikulu

Chifuwa chachikulu (TB) ndi matenda opatsirana amene nthawi zambiri amayamba chifukwa cha bakiteriya wa Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[1] Matenda a chfuwa chachikulu amagwira mapapu, koma amathanso kukhudza ziwalo zina za thupi. Anthu ambiri ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa sasonyeza zizindikiro zilizonse, ndipo zikatero zimakhala kuti chifuwa chachikulucho sichinayambe kuonekera. Pafupifupi 10% ya anthu omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa omwe sanayambe kusonyeza zizindikiro zilizonse amatha kuyamba kuonetsa zizindikiro ngati sanalandire thandizo lililonse la kuchipatala, ndipo hafu ya anthu oterewa amatha kumwalira ndi matendawa. Zizindikiro za matenda a TB zikuphatikizapo kukhosomola kwambiri mpaka kumalavula magazi, kutentha ndi kuphwanya kwa thupi, kutuluka thukuta usiku pogona, ndiponso kuonda.[1] Matendawa ankadziwika kuti "oyamwa thupi" chifukwa choti anthu omwe akudwala amawonda kwambiri.[2] Matendawa akagwira ziwalo zina munthuyo amatha kuyamba kusonyea zizindikiro zosiyanasiyana.[3]

Chifuwa chachikulu chimafalikira kudzera mumpweya anthu omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa akakhosomola, kulavula malovu, kulankhula kapena kuyetsemula.[1][4] Anthu omwe ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa omwe sanayambe kuonetsa zizindikiro sangapatsire anthu ena. Anthu omwe ali ndi matenda ena monga HIV/AIDS komanso omwe amasuta fodya ndi omwe kawirikawiri amadwala matenda a chifuwa chachikulu.[1] Kuti madokotala azindikire ngati munthu ali ndi TB amafunika kumuunika m'mapapu pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya X-rays, komanso njira yoyeza madzi a m'thupi. DKoma kuti madokotala adziwe ngati munthu ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa ngakhale kuti sakusonyeza zizindikiro, zimadalira kuyeza khungu pogwiritsa ntchito njira yotchedwa tuberculin skin test (TST) kapena kuyteza magazi.[5]

Kupewa kwa chifuwa cha TB kumaphatikizapo kuwunika omwe ali pachiwopsezo chachikulu, kuzindikira matendawa asanayambe n'komwe ndi kulandikira thandizo la kuchipatala mofulumira komanso kulandira katemera wa bacillus Calmette-Guérin.[6][7][8] Anthu omwe angatenge matendawa mosavuta ndi omwe akukhala nyumba imodzi ndi wodwala, anthu omwe akugwira nawo ntchito komanso anthu omwe angamacheze ndi wodwala chifuwa chachikulu.[8] Thandizo la chipatala la matendawa likuphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito maantibayotiki ambiri kwa nthawi yaitali.[1] Nthawi zina tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa sitimva mankhwala a maantibayotiki ndipo zimenezi zimachititsa kuti chifuwa chachikulucho chisamamvenso mankhwala aliwonse.[1]

Zikuoneka kuti munthu m'modzi anthu atatu aliwonse padziko lonse ali ndi matenda a chifuwa chachikulu.[1] Ndipo chaka chilichonse munthu m'modzi pa anthu 100 aliwonse amatenga matenda a chifuwa chachikulu.[9] M'chaka cha 2014, anthu opitirira 9.6 miliyoni anadwala matendawa zomwe zinachititsa kuti anthu 1.5 miliyoni amwalire. Anthu oposa 95 pa 100 alionse omwe anamwalira ndi matendawa anali a m'mayiko amene akukwera kumene. Koma chiwerengero cha anthu atsopano omwe akumatenga matendawa chaka chilichonse chatsika kuyambira m'chaka cha 2000.[1] Ndipo pafupifupi anthu 80 pa 100 alionse a m'maiko ambiri ku Asia ndi ku Africa anapezeka kuti ali ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matedawa atayezedwa ndi achipatala, pomwe oyambira pa 5 mpaka 10 pa 100 alionse a ku United States ndi amene anapezeka ndi tizilombo toyambitsa chifuwa chachikulu.[10] Zikuoneka kuti matenda a chifuwa chachikulu akhala akuvutitsa anthu kuyambira kale kwambiri.[11]

MalifalensiEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104". WHO. October 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  2. The Chambers Dictionary. New Delhi: Allied Chambers India Ltd. 1998. p. 352. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
  3. Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. pp. Chapter 250. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
  4. "Basic TB Facts". CDC. March 13, 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  5. Konstantinos A (2010). "Testing for tuberculosis". Australian Prescriber. 33 (1): 12–18.
  6. Hawn, TR; Day, TA; Scriba, TJ; Hatherill, M; Hanekom, WA; Evans, TG; Churchyard, GJ; Kublin, JG; Bekker, LG; Self, SG (December 2014). "Tuberculosis vaccines and prevention of infection". Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR. 78 (4): 650–71. PMID 25428938.
  7. Harris, Randall E. (2013). Epidemiology of chronic disease : global perspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 682. ISBN 9780763780470.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Organization, World Health (2008). Implementing the WHO Stop TB Strategy : a handbook for national TB control programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 179. ISBN 9789241546676.
  9. "Tuberculosis". World Health Organization. 2002.
  10. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516–522. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.
  11. Lawn, SD; Zumla, AI (2 July 2011). "Tuberculosis". Lancet. 378 (9785): 57–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.